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THE 

AMERICAN STANDARD 

OF PERFECTION 

ILLUSTRATED 

A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF ALL 
RECOGNIZED VARIETIES OF FOWLS 



AS REVISED BY 

THE AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

AT ITS THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING AT NIAGARA FAIA& 

NEW YORK, NINETEEN HUNDRED NINE, AND AT ITS 

THIRTY-FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING AT ST. LOUIS 

MISSOURI, NINETEEN HUNDRED TEN 



Printed and Published by 

THE AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

1910 



TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN: 

The public is expressly forbidden, on penalty of tlie law, to 
reproduce, duplicate, copy, seek to imitate or to make any other 
improper use of any of the illustrations contained in this book, all 
of which are the exclusive property of The American Poultry As- 
sociation, and protected by copyright in the United States, England 
and Canada. Permission to make quotations from the text of this 
book is granted, provided such quotations are disconnected, few 
in number, and are used solely for the dissemination of knowledge; 
but these quotations must not be used to an extent nor in a manner 
that will injure the sale of this work, nor may they be used for ad- 
vertising purposes, as in circulars, catalogues, etc. Notice is 
hereby given that any infringement of ilie copyright on the con- 
tents of this book will result in immediate prosecution. 

THE AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 



Copyright, 1910, by 
THE AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



INTRODUCTION. 

The American Poultry Association was organized at 
a meeting held in the city of Buffalo, New York, February 15, 
1873. The attendance was composed principally of delegates 
from state and county associations, prominent breeders and 
fanciers from different parts of the United States and Canada, 
and other interested persons. The object was to formulate and 
adopt a standard of excellence to be used exclusively by associa- 
tions in awarding prizes on exhibition poultry. A constitution and 
by-laws were adopted, and a complete standard was made for 
all the then-recognized varieties of domestic and ornamental 
fowls. Mr. W. H. Churchman, of Wilmington, Delaware, was 
the first president, and Mr. J. M. Wade, of Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, the first secretary. Provision was made for annual meet- 
ings, at which changes could be made in the adopted standard, 
and matters of national importance concerning the poultry 
interest might be considered and acted on. 

Nearly even' large city and poultry center of importance 
has been visited in turn by these annual meetings. The work 
of standard making was so well done in the beginning that but 
few changes, and those of minor importance, have been found 
necessary. New breeds and varieties have been added; but the 
policy has been, and is, to admit only such as have become well 
established, and that clearly are entitled to the distinctive term, 
" standard-bred. " 

The first edition of the Standard was printed and issued to 
the public in February, 1874. It has been followed by others 
containing such changes and additions as have been made from 
time to time by authority of The American Poultry Association. 

The American Standard of Perfection, as now given to the 

3 



4 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

poultry world, contains all changes in and additions to the con- 
stitution and by-laws, and the text of the Standard, as authorized 
to the present time. The first illustrated revision was begun 
by the appointment of an Editorial Committee at Chicago, Janu- 
ary, 1901, and the appointment of a Committee on Illustrated 
Standard, at Buffalo, in October, 1901. At Cleveland, Decem- 
ber, 1902, these two committees were merged and the number 
of members increased to fifteen. Several weeks were devoted 
to the work of carefully revising the description of every variety. 

The proposed changes and additions were fully considered, 
and there was much discussion in the poultry press. Prominent 
fanciers and breeders, representatives of specialty clubs and 
foremost poultry artists were called to the assistance of the Com- 
mittee on Revision. The committee's completed report was 
presented at the twenty-eighth annual meeting of The American 
Poultry Association, held at Rochester, New York, February 2, 
1904. After four days of earnest consideration, resulting in 
further amendment, it was adopted by unanimous vote, and 
ordered published in book form as herewith presented. 

The descriptions and illustrations now published in this 
latest revised edition of The American Standard of Perfection 
are those agreed upon by the high authorities consulted, as cor- 
rect representations of ideal specimens. In the conception and 
formation of these ideals, the artistic in form and color, and the 
possibilities of nature, were the guides, while beauty and utility 
are the results sought to be obtained. With this brief foreword 
of explanation, the present edition is offered to the public, in 
the interests of poultry culture. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE 1910 REVISION. 

The constitution of The American Poultry Association 
provides that "A general revision of The American Standard 
of Perfection shall take place once in five years and not oftener" 
(Article X, Section 1, Constitution). In pursuance of such purpose 
the Association at its thirty-third annual meeting at Niagara Palls, 
New York, August 11, 1908, by resolution appointed a committee, 
to be known as the Revision Committee for 1910. The committee 
was empowered to revise and change such of the text and illustra- 
tions contained in the Standard of 1905 as it wished to recom- 
mend in the form of a report. 

A general invitation was extended through the poultry 
press by the president of The American Poultry Association to 
every fancier, who had bought a copy of the Standard of Per- 
fection, to offer criticisms and suggestions. The secretary- 
treasurer mailed to all members of the Association, including 
life, annual, associate, club and society members, letters asking 
each member to offer criticisms and suggestions as to both the 
text and illustration of the then present Standard of Perfection 
for incorporation in the new revision of the Standard. A vast 
amount of useful and helpful material was in this way furnished 
the committee, which at a meeting in Chicago, Illinois, April 6-21, 
1909, and at Niagara Falls, August 9-10, 1909, carefully con- 
sidered every proposed change, omission and addition. The 
decisions arrived at were embodied in a report to the Association 
at its thirty-fourth annual meeting, August 10-12, at Niagara 
Falls, New York. All members had been given notice by mail 
ninety days before the meeting, of the proposed changes. The 
report of the committee was taken up in detail by the Association 
and, after amendment and correction, was adopted as herein pub- 

5 



6 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

lished. The illustrations were presented to the thirty-fifth annual 
meeting of the Association at St. Louis, Missouri, August 15-20, 
1910. After alterations, under the direction of special committees 
of experts, were made, the illustrations were approved by vote of 
the Association. 

As the constitution and by-laws of The American Poultry 
Association are liable to be amended and changed at each meet- 
ing and the general revision of the Standard cannot be made 
oftener than once in five years, the Association has deemed it 
wise that the constitution and by-laws shall not be printed in 
the Standard, except the article providing for the adoption of new 
breeds and the article providing for American Poultry Show 
rules. These two articles will be found herein. 



TO THE POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS 
OF AMERICA. 

Recognizing your loyalty to The American Poultry Asso- 
ciation, and believing that a few general rules will be bene- 
ficial in conducting poultry exhibitions at which The American 
Standard of Perfection is advertised to govern the placing of 
the awards, we submit the following, with the request that the same 
importance be attached to them as to other parts of the Standard : 

Poultry associations at whose exhibitions The American 
Standard of Perfection is used, are requested to give preference 
to judges who are members of The American Poultry Associa- 
tion. Judges who are members of this organization are accredited 
thereby, to the extent of being in good standing, and it is reason- 
able to conclude that they will apply properly the law of the 
Association as contained in its Standard. 

Judges employed by you should be required to follow and 
apply the Standard literally, carefully considering each section 
of every specimen, according to the scale of points provided for 
the several breeds. No section is to be ignored. Each section 
is regarded as important by The American Poultry Association, 
and should a judge pass a specimen without considering all points, 
the exhibitor shall be allowed the privilege of protesting the deci- 
sion, and such protest is to be entertained and properly disposed 
of by the local association. 

Protests are to be entertained by local associations only in 
cases of apparent dishonesty, ignorance or carelessness on the 
part of the judge. In scoring the specimens in dispute, the judge, 
together with the president and secretary of the local association 
(or representatives appointed by the management of the local 
association), shall constitute a committee of three, and the major- 

7 



8 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

ity decision of this committee shall be final. Score cards made 
out by the judge in deciding protested awards are to be retained 
by the local association. 

When protests are entertained, where the judging has been 
done by score card, the specimens under dispute shall be re- 
scored by the judge, he to act as a member of the committee of 
three, as provided, the re-scoring to be done in the presence of 
the other two members of the committee on protests. 

Protests are not to be entertained except when made in writ- 
ing, and the person making same shall deposit with the secretary 
of the local association the sum of five dollars, this money to be 
returned to the person making the protest if his protest be sus- 
tained; if protest be not sustained, the deposit becomes the 
property of the local association. 

A uniform style of score card is recommended, with a view 
to having all associations use the same scale of points, and thus 
assist in making the work of the judges more accurate and uni- 
form. The form of score card printed in this book is used and 
recommended by a large majority of the leading judges. It is 
not copyrighted, and local associations are requested to use it, 
each card to bear these words : " Official Score Card of The 
American Poultry Association." 

Special consideration is to be given the matter of Standard 
weights and proper size at score-card shows and at comparison 
shows, respectively. Each specimen at all score-card shows 
shall be correctly weighed, regardless of circumstances. The 
practice of allowing a few ounces is expressly forbidden, inas- 
much as it works great injustice. It has a harmful influence on 
the judge, the exhibitor, the local association and the industry 
at large, and many times deprives prudent and worthy fanciers 
of prizes rightfully due them. 

Any exhibitor found guilty of faking, or of showing borrowed 
birds, shall be debarred from competition and shall forfeit any 
prize or prizes that may have been awarded him. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 9 

It is respectfully recommended that local associations, specialty 
clubs, and other organizations, advertise in their premium lists 
and otherwise that their exhibitions will be conducted under the 
rules of The American Poultry Association, and that the in- 
structions to judges, general disqualifications, and other provi- 
sions and requirements of The American Standard of Perfec- 
tion shall govern. 

Fraternally, 

The American Poultry Association. 



CONTENTS 

A PAGE 

Admission of new breeds 328 

American class 36 

Anconas, shape 160 

Color 161 

Andalusians, Blue, shape 157 

Color 158 

Asiatic class 104 

B 

Bantams, Bearded White Polish 276 

Black-Breasted Red Malay, shape and color 248 

Black Cochin, illustrated 266, 267 

Black Japanese 271 

Black-Tailed Japanese 270 

Black-Tailed Japanese, illustrated 272, 273 

Booted White, shape 261 

Booted White, color 262 

Brahma, shape and color 263 

Buff Cochin, illustrated 264, 265 

Buff-Laced Polish 276 

Cochin, shape and color 268 

Game, shape and color 231 

Golden Sebright 253 

Japanese, shape 269 

Non-Bearded Polish varieties 277 

Ornamental 250 

Polish, shape ; 274 

Rose-Comb, shape 257 

Rose-Comb, Black 260 

Rose-Comb Black, illustrated 258, 259 

Rose-Comb, White 260 

Sebright, shape 252 

Silver Sebright 256 

Silver Sebright, illustrated 254, 255 

White Japanese 271 

10 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 11 

PAGE 

Bbahmas, shape 105 

Light 107 

Light, illustrated 108, 109 

Dark 110 

Dark, illustrated 112, 113 

Buckeyes, shape 100 

Color 101 

Illustrated 102, 103 

c 

Class, American 36 

Asiatic 104 

Ducks 295 

English 163 

French 205 

Games and Game Bantams 215 

Geese 315 

Hamburgs 192 

Mediterranean , 131 

Miscellaneous 278 

Orientals 232 

Ornamental Bantams 249 

Polish 180 

Turkeys 285 

Cochins, shape 115 

Black 125 

Buff 118 

Buff, illustrated 120, 121 

Partridge 119 

Partridge, illustrated. 122, 123 

White 125 

Comparison system, in applying the 31 

Constitution 328 

Contents 10 

Cornish 233 

Dark 235 

Dark, illustrated 236, 237 

White 238 

White-laced, Red , 239 

White-laced, Red, illustrated 240, 241 

Crevecoeurs, shape 211 

Color 212 

Cutting for defects 33 



12 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

D PAGE 

Description of breeds 36 

Diagram of fowl 17 

Disqualifications, general 32 

Dominiques, shape 92 

Dominiques, illustrated 93a, 936 

Color 93 

Dorkings, shape 164 

Colored 167 

Silver Gray 166 

Silver Gray, illustrated 168, 169 

White 165 

Duck class 295 

Ducks, Aylesbury, shape and color 297 

Black East India, shape and color 307 

Blue Swedish, shape 314 

Blue Swedish, color .... 314 

Call, shape 305 

Cayuga, shape and color 304 

Colored Muscovy 309 

Crested White, shape 307 

Crested White, color 308 

Gray Call 305 

Indian Runner, shape and color 310, 311 

Indian Runner, illustrated 312, 313 

Muscovy, shape 309 

Pekin, shape 297 

Pekin, color 297 

Pekin, illustrated 298, 299 

Rouen, shape 300 

Rouen, color 301 

Rouen, illustrated 302, 303 

White Call 306 

White Muscovy 310 

E 

English class 163 

F 

French class 205 

Frizzles 284 

G 

Game and Game Bantam class 215 

Game Bantams 231 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 13 

PAGE 

Games 216 

Shape 216 

Birchen 226 

Black 230 

Black-Breasted Red 218 

Black-Breasted Red, Illustrated 220, 221 

Brown Red 219 

Golden Duckwing 222 

Red Pyle 227 

Red Pyle, illustrated 228, 229 

Silver Duckwing 223 

Silver Duckwing, illustrated 224, 225 

White 230 

Geese class 315 

Geese, African, shape and color 321 

Brown Chinese, color 322 

Chinese, shape 322 

Egyptian, shape and color 326 

Embden, shape and color 320 

Toulouse, shape and color 317 

Toulouse, illustrated 318, 319 

White Chinese, color 323 

White Chinese, illustrated 324, 325 

Wild or Canadian, shape f nd color 323 

General disqualifications 32 

Glossary of technical terms 18 



H 

Hamburgs class 192 

Hamburgs, shape 193 

Black 204 

Golden Penciled 197 

Golden Penciled illustrated 200, 201 

Golden Spangle* i 194 

Silver Penciled 203 

Silver Spangled 196 

Silver Spangled, illustrated 198, 199 

White 204 

Houdans, shape 206 

Color 207 

Illustrated 208. 209 



14 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

I PAGE 

Instructions to judges 29 

Introduction 3 

J 

Javas, shape 88 

Black 89 

Black, illustrated 90, 91 

Mottled „ 92 

Judges, instructions to 29 

L 

La Fleche, shape 213 

Color 214 

Langshans, shape 126 

Black 130 

Black, illustrated 128, 129 

White 130 

Leghorns, shape 132 

Black 143 

Brown 134 

Brown, illustrated 136, 137 

Buff 142 

Buff, illustrated 144, 145 

Silver 146 

White 134 

White, Single-Comb, illustrated 138, 139 

White, Rose-Comb, illustrated 140, 141 

M 

Malays, Black-Breasted Red 245 

Shape 245 

Color 247 

Mediterranean class 131 

Minorcas, shape 148 

Black 152 

Black, illustrated 150, 151 

White 152 

Miscellaneous class 278 

N 

Nomenclature 17 

New Breeds, admission of 328 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 15 

O PAGE 

Official score card 28 

Oriental class 232 

Ornamental Bantam class 249 

Orpingtons, shape 174 

Buff 176 

Buff, illustrated 178, 179 

Black 177 

White 177 



P 

Plymouth Rocks, shape 38 

Barred 39 

Barred, illustrated 40, 41 

Buff 43 

Buff, illustrated 46, 47 

Columbian 56 

Columbian, illustrated 58, 59 

Partridge 52 

Partridge, illustrated 54, 55 

Silver Penciled 48 

Silver Penciled, illustrated 50, 51 

White 42 

White, illustrated 44, 45 

Polish class 180 

Polish, shape 181 

Bearded Golden 183 

Bearded Silver 186 

Bearded Silver, illustrated 188, 189 

Bearded White 187 

Buff Laced 190 

Non-Bearded varieties 191 

White-Crested Black 182 

White-Crested Black, illustrated 184, 185 



R 

Redcaps, shape 171 

Color 172 

Rhode Island Reds, shape 94 

Color 96 

Illustrated 98. 99 



16 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

S PAGE 

Score card, official 28 

Show-Rules 329 

Silkies, shape 279 

Color 281 

Spanish, White-Faced Black, shape 153 

Color 156 

Illustrated 154, 155 

Sultans, shape 282 

Color 283 

Sumatras, Black, shape 243 

Color 244 

T 

To the Poultry Associations of America 7 

Turkey class 285 

Turkeys, shape 286 

Black 292 

Bourbon Red 294 

Bronze 287 

Bronze, illustrated 288, 289 

Buff 293 

Narragansett 290 

Slate 293 

White Holland 292 

W 

Wyandottes, shape 61 

Black 70 

Buff 71 

Buff, illustrated 74, 75 

Columbian 84 

Columbian, illustrated 86, 87 

Golden 66 

Golden, illustrated 68, 69 

Partridge 76 

Partridge, illustrated 78, 79 

Silver 62 

Silver, illustrated 64, 65 

Silver Penciled 80 

Silver Penciled, illustrated 82, 83 

White 70 

White, illustrated 72, 73 




^,y"-V*<afi?'*& 



Beak. 

1 Comb. 

2 Face. 

3 Wattles. 

4 Ear-lobe. 

5 Hackle. 

6 Breast. 

7 Back. 

8 Saddle. 



NOMENCLATURE DIAGRAM OF FOWL 

9 Saddle feathers. 

10 Sickles. 

11 Lesser sickles. 

12 Tail- coverts. 
13, 13 Main tail feathers. 

14 Wing-bow. * . 

15 Wing-coverts, forming wing-bar. 

16 Secondaries, wing-bay. 

17 Primaries, or flight feathers. 

17 



18 Flight-coverts. 
• 19 Fluff. 

20 Body. 

21 Thigh. 
22, 22 Knee-joints. 

i 23, 23 Shanks. 
24 Spur. 
25, 25 Toes, or claws. 



GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS. 



Barring : Bars or stripes extending across a feather at right angles to its 

length, or nearly so. (See Figs. 1, 2 and 3.) 
Beard: In chickens, a group of feathers pendent from the throat, as in 
Houdans and Polish. In turkeys, a tuft of coarse, bristly hairs, four to 
six inches long, projecting from upper part of breast of mature males, 
^fc* Bean: A hard, bean-shaped protuberance growing at tip 

Jgg|H of the upper mandible of a water fowl. (See Fig. 4.) 

Beak: The projecting mouth parts of chickens and tur- 
keys, consisting of upper and lower mandibles. 
Bill: The projecting mouth parts of water fowl, con- 
sisting of upper and lower mandibles. (See Fig. 4.) 
Blade: The rear part of a single comb, back of the last 
well-defined point, usually extending beyond the crown 
of the head. (See Fig. 5.) 
Brassiness : Having the color of brass ; yellowish. 
"Breed: A race of fowls, the mem- 
bers of which maintain distinctive 
shape characteristics that they 
possess in common. Breed is a 
broader term than variety. Breed 
includes varieties, as, for example, 
the Barred, White and Buff va- 
rieties of the Plymouth Rock breed. 
Brood: All the young birds hatched or cared for 

at one time by one mother, or in one brooder. 
Cape: The short feathers on the back, underneath 

the hackle, shaped like a cape. 
Carriage: The attitude, bearing or style of a bird. 
Caruncles: Small fleshy protuberances, as on the 

head of a turkey. 
Carunculated : Having caruncles. 
Cavernous: Applied to the hollow protruding 

nostrils of the crested breeds. 
Chicks: The young of the domestic hen, properly 
i * applied until the sex can be distinguished ; 
sometimes used to designate specimens less 
than one year old. (i( 

18 




Fig, 

Barred Feather, Fe 
male (ideal). 




tEt"^!^ 




Fig. 2. 
Burred Hackle Feather. Male 
leal). 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



19 




enciling, Parallel 



Chickens: Specifically, the young of the domestic hen prior to the de- 
velopment of adult plumage; used as a general term to designate all 
domestic fowls, except turkeys, ducks, geese, pea -fowl and guinea-fowl. 
Cock: A male fowl one year old and over. 
Cockerel: A male fowl less than one year old. 
Comb: The fleshy protuberance growing on the top of a 
fowl's head. The standard varieties of combs are: 
Single, rose, pea, v-shaped and strawberry, all others 
being modifications of these. (See diagram of fowl; 
also Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10.) 
Condition: The state of a fowl as regards health, cleanli- 
ness and order of plumage. 
Coverts : See tail, flight and wing-coverts. 
Creaminess: Having the color of cream; light yellow. 
Crest: A crown or tuft of feathers on the head of a 

fowl. (See Fig. 9.) 
Crop: The receptacle in which a fowl's food is accum- 
ulated before it passes into the gizzard. 
Cushion: The mass of feathers at rear of back of a 
fowl, partly covering the tail; well-developed in Cochin 
females. 
Daw: The pinkish-yellow color found in eyes of the Form (ideal). 

Oriental and some other varieties of Games. 
Dewlap : A pendulous skin developed under the throat. 
Disqualification: A deformity or serious defect that renders a fowl un- 
worthy to win a prize. 

Disqualified: Applied to a fowl that is 

unworthy to win a prize. 
Down: The first hairy covering of chicks; 
also the tiny tufts of hair-like growth 
that sometimes are found on the shanks, 
toes or feet of fowls. 
(Note: If quill and web are discernible 
to the eye, it is a feather.) 
Drake: A male of the duck family. 
Dubbing : Cutting off the comb, wattles and 
ear-lobes, so as to leave the head smooth. 
Duck : A female of the duck family, as dis- 
tinguished from the drake, or male. 
Duckling : The young of the duck family, in the downy stage of plumage 

prior to the development of feathers. 
Duck-Footed: The hind toe carried forward. (See Fig. 11.) 
Ear-Lobes: The folds of bare skin just below the ears, sometimes called 
"deaf-ears." Ear-lobes vary in color in different breeds, being red, 




Fig. 4. 
Head of a Duck (ideal): A, Bill; B, 
Bean. 



20 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




Fig. 5. 
A type of Single Comb (ideal) : 1, Base; 2, 2, 2, 2, 
2, Points; 3, Blade. For other types see Plymouth 
Rocks, Minorcas, Javas, etc. 




Fig. 6. 
A type of Rose Comb (ideal): 1, Base; 2, 
Rounded Points; 3, Spike. See Diagram of Fowl, 
page 15, for Ideal Wyandotte Comb. 




Fig. 7. 
Pea Comb, Profile (ideal). 




Fig. 9. 
Sultan Head, Male (ideal): 1, 1, V-Shaped 
Comb; 2, Crest; 3, 3, Muffs; 4, Beard. 




Fig. 8. 

Pea Comb, Quartering View (ideal). 




Fig. 10. 
Strawberry Comb (ideal). 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



21 



V 



^ 



i 




Fig 11.. 

Duck-Font ed (a defect). 



white, purple, cream, etc.; they also vary greatly in size. (See dia- 
gram of fowl.) 
Face: The bare skin on the head of a fowl around and below the eyes. 

(See diagram of fowl.) 
Faking: Removing, or attempting to remove, foreign color in face or ear- 
lobes when it is a disqualification; removing one or more side sprigs, or 
trimming a comb in any manner, except the dubbing of Games; arti- 
ficial coloring of any feather; splicing feathers; injury 
to plumage of any fowl entered by another exhibitor; 
plugging up holes on legs of smooth-legged varieties 
where feathers or stubs disqualify; staining of legs; in 
fact, any self-evident attempt on the part of an exhibitor 
to deceive the judge and thus obtain an unfair advan- 
tage in competition. 
Feather: A growth formed of a dis- 
cernible quill and a vane (called 
web) upon each side of it. 
(Note: If the quill is not discern- 
ible to the eye, it is down.) 
Flights: The primary feathers of 
the wing, used in flying, but folded 
up out of sight, or nearly so, when the fowl is at rest. 
Flight-Coverts: The short, moderately-stiff feathers located at the base 
of the wing primaries, or flight feathers, and partly covering their quills. 
Fluff: The soft feathers about thighs and posterior part of a fowl ; also the 
soft, downy under-part of a feather. (See diagram of fowl ; also Fig. 19.) 
Frosting: A marginal edging or tracing of color on feathers of laced, 

spangled and penciled varieties. (See Fig. 13.) 
Furnished : Applicable to a cockerel with fully-developed comb, hackle, 
saddle, tail, etc. 
Gills: A term that is applied to the 

wattles. (See "Wattles.") 
'Gipsy Color: Dark purple, ap- 
proaching black. 
Hackle: The neck plumage of either 
sex, formed of the hackle feathers. 
(See diagram of fowl.) 
Hackle Feathers: The long, narrow 
feathers growing on the neck of a 
fowl, either sex. (See Figs. 2 and 14.) 
Hangers: A term sometimes applied 
to the lesser sickles and tail-coverts. 
(See diagram of fowl.) 





Fig. 12. 
Laced Feather (ideal). 



Hen-Feathered : A male bird that Froeting^a defect). 



22 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 



resembles a hen, owing to the absence of sickles, pointed hackle 
feathers, etc., is said to be "hen-feathered." 
Hock: See "Knee- Joint." (Also diagram of 

fowl.) 
Jaw: The base of the upper and lower man- 
dibles. 
Knee- Joint: The joint between the thigh and 
shank. , 

Knock-Kneed : A deformity in which the legs 
come too near together at the knee-joints 
and are bent outward, laterally, below the 
knees. 
Laced, Lacing: A feather edged or bordered 
with a band of color differing from the body 
color of feather. (See Fig. 12.) 
Leaf Comb: A combination of two small single 
combs, having serrated, leaf-liKe edges; the 
original Houdan comb, now 
replaced in America by the 
v-shaped comb. (See Fig. 9.) 
Leg: Includes thigh and 

shank. 
Leg Feathers: Feathers grow- 
ing on the outer side of the 
shank, as in Asiatics. (See 
Fig. 28.) 
Lopped Comb: A comb falling over to one side. 
To disqualify (see "General Disqualifications"), 
in a single comb, some portion must fall below the 
horizontal plane where the comb begins to lop; 
in the rose or pea comb varieties it must lop over 

far enough to come in contact with one side of the 
fowl's head. (See Figs. 15 and 27.) 
Lesser Sickles : (See " Sickles . ") 

Mealy: Having the appearance of being sprinkled with 
meal. Applied to buff varieties where the ground 
color is stippled with a lighter color. (See "Stip- 
ple"; also Fig. 16.) 
Mossy: Irregular, dark penciling appearing in centers 
of laced feathers and destroying the desirable con- 
trast of color. (See Fig. 17.) 
Mottled: Plumage marked on the surface with spots of 

different colors or shades of color. 
Muffs ; The cluster of feathers covering the sides of the 







Fig. 14. 

Striped Feather (ideal). 




Fig. 15. 
Lopped Rose Comb 
(a defect). 




STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



23 





Kg. 17. 



face below the eyes, extending from the beard to the ear-lobes and 
found only on bearded varieties. (See Fig. 9.) 
Obtuse Angle: An angle greater than a right-angle, i.e., one containing 

more than 90 degrees. 
Parti-Colored : Feathers or fowls having two or more 

colors. 
Pea Comb: A triple comb, of medium length, resem- 
bling three straight, single combs placed parallel with 
one another, and joined at base and rear, each having 
short but distinctly-divided serrations, the serrations 
of the two outer rows being lower and smaller than 
those of the middle row, and those of each row being 
larger and somewhat thicker midway of the comb 
than at front and rear. (See Figs. 7 and 8.) 
Pen: A male and four females. 

^ Penciling: Small markings or stripes on a feather. 
They may run straight across, as 
in the penciled Hamburgs, in 
which case thev frequently are 
called bars, or may follow the out- Mo6sy (a defect >- 

line of a feather, taking a crescentic form, as in 
the Dark Brahmas, Partridge Cochins, etc. (See 
Figs. 3 and 18.) 
Peppered, Peppering: Sprinkled with gray or black. 

(See "Mealy.") 
Plumage: The feathers of a fowl. 
Poult: The young of the domestic 
turkey, properly applied until the 
sex can be distinguished, when 
they become cockerels and pullets. 
Poultry : Domestic fowls reared for 
exhibition, for the table, or for 
their eggs or feathers. 
Primaries: The flight feathers of the wing, hidden, or 

nearly so, when the wing is closed. 
Profile: A direct side view of a fowl, applied both to 
live specimens and to illustrations. 
* Pullet: A female fowl less than one year old. 
Quill: The hollow, horny, basal part or stem of a 
feather. (See "Shaft"; also Fig. 19.) 
i Rose Comb : A low, thick, solid comb , the upper surface 5 h 

of which should be covered with small, rounded -j £ 

points. This comb terminates in a well-developed 5 * 

spike, which may turn ipward, as in Hamburgs, be Fi g . 19. 



Kg. 18. 



Penciling. Crescentic 
Form (ideal). 




24 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




Fig. 20. 
One Form of Shafting (a 
defect). 



nearly level, as in the Rose-Comb Leghorns, or turn downward, as in 
the Wyandottes. (See Figs. 6 and 15; also diagram of fowl, page 15, 
for ideal Wyandotte comb.) 

Rooster: A term commonly applied to a cockerel 

or cock, but not used by fanciers. 
Saddle: The rear part of the back of a male bird, 
extending to the tail and covered by the saddle 
feathers. (See diagram of fowl.) 
Saddle Feathers : The feathers growing out of 

the saddle. (See diagram of fowl.) 
Saddle Hackles: The long, narrow, pointed 
feathers growing from a male bird's saddle and 
drooping at the sides. 
Scaly Legs: A fowl's legs having an incrustation 

or deposit upon and beneath the scales. 
Secondaries : The long quill feathers that grow on 
the second joint or fore-arm of a fowl's wing, vis- 
ible when the wing is folded. With the prima- 
ries, they constitute the main feathers of the wing. (See diagram of fowl.) 
Solid Color, Self-Color: A uniform color, unmixed with any other. 
Serrated : Notched along the edge like a saw. 
Serration: One of the projections of a serrate 

formation, as a serrated comb. 
Shaft: The stem of a feather, especially the part 
filled with pith which bears the barbs. (See 
Figs. 19 and 20.) 
Shafting : The shaft of the plume portion of the 
feather being lighter or darker in color than the 
web of the feather. (See Fig. 20.) 
Shank: The lower, scaly part of a fowl's leg, ex- 
clusive of the foot and toes. 
Sickles: The long, curved feathers of a male bird's tail, properly applied 
to the top pair only, but sometimes used in referring to the prominent 

tail-coverts^ which also are called 
lesser sickles. (See diagram of fowl .) 
Side Sprigs: Extraneous, well-defined 
growths on the side of a comb. 
(See Fig. 21.) 
?^y Single Comb: A comb consisting of 
a single, thin, fleshy, serrated forma- 
tion, rising from the beak and ex- 
tending backward over the crown 
of the head, and, in males, beyond 

Slipped Wing and Twisted Feather (defects). tne head. (See Fig. 5.) 




Fig. 21. 
One Form of Side Sprigs (a 
defect). 




1* 

VZ 

•c re 



= - 
o P 

«s 

MM 

a| 





STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



25 





Fig. 23. 
Spangled Feather 
(ideal). 



Slipped Wing: A wing of a fowl not closely folded and held up in proper 
position; a defect resulting from injury, or from weakness of muscles 
of wing. (See Fig. 22.) 
Spangle: A clearly-defined marking of distinctive color, located at the end 

of a spangled feather. (See Fig. 23.) 
Spangled: Plumage made up of spangled feathers. 
Splashed Feather: A feather with colors scattered 

and irregularly intermixed. (See Fig. 24.) 
Spur: A horn-like protuberance, growing from the 
inner side of the shank of a fowl ; may be knob-like 
or pointed, according to the age of the fowl and the 
sex. (See diagram of fowl.) 
Squirrel Tail: A fowl's tail, any portion of which pro- 
jects forward toward the neck, beyond a perpen- 
dicular line drawn from the junc- 
ture of tail and back. (See Fig. 25.) 
Stag: A term used for a young male, 
chiefly employed by game fanciers. 
"Station: Ideal pose, embodying stand- 
ard style and symmetry, notably 
height and reach, as applied to 
Games. 
Stipple: Verb: To execute in stipple, i.e., draw, paint 
or engrave by means of dots instead of lines. Noun: 
The effect obtained in color work by the use of dots 
instead of lines or strokes. (See Fig. 26.) 
' Strain: A family of any variety of fowls bred in line by 
Fig. 24. descent by one fancier, or a successor, during a num- 

KplasheT "leather her of years, that has acquired individual characteris- 

(a defect). tj cs which distinguish it more or less from other 

strains or specimens of the same variety. 
Strawberry Comb: Approaching in 
shape the outline and surface of a 
strawberry. (See Fig. 10.) 
Surface Color: The visible color of 
the plumage when a fowl is at rest. 
(See "Under-Color.") 
Symmetry: Perfection of proportion; the 
harmony of all the parts or sections of 
a fowl, viewed as a whole, Avith regard 
to the standard type of the breed it 
represents. 
Tail-Coverts: The curved feathers in 

front of and at the sides of the tail, Squirrel Taiioi' defect). 




26 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




Pig. 26. 
Stippled Feather 



usually of same color as the tail, but sometimes laced or penciled. (See 

diagram of fowl.) 

Tail Feathers, Main: The straight and stiff feathers of the tail that are 

contained inside the sickles and tail-coverts; the top 

pair are sometimes slightly curved, but generally are 

straight. (See diagram of fowl.) 

Thighs: That part of the legs above the shanks. (See 

diagram of fowl.) 
Thumb Mark: A disfiguring depression which some- 
times appears in the side of a single comb. (See 
Fig. 27.) 
Toe-Feathering: The feathers on the toes of a fowl. 

(See Fig. 28.) 
Topknot: A word wrongly used 
as meaning crest; no longer 
employed by fanciers. 
Trio: One male and two females. 
Twisted Comb: An irregularly- 
shaped comb, falling or curving 
(Meal), from side to side, being dis- 

torted from the normal, perpendicular position. 
(See Fig 29.) 
Twisted Feather: Feather with quill or shaft 

twisted. (See Fig. 22.) 
Typical: Expressing a characteristic, in color or 

form, representative of a breed or variety— showing L^Singfe Comb, 
for example, typical shape, meaning the form Thumb Mark, Wrinkled Ear- 

!• * i. J lobe, Wrinkled Wattles and 

peculiar to a breed. Wattles of Unequal Length 

Under-Color : The color of the downy portion of (defects). 

the plumage, not visible when the plumage of a fowl is in its natural 

position. (See Fig. 19.) 
Variety : A subdivision of a breed 
(see definition of breed) used 
to distinguish fowls having the 
standard shape of the breed to 
which they belong, but differing 
in color of plumage, shape of 
comb, etc., from other groups of 
the same breed. The general 
difference between the terms 
"breed" and "variety" is well 
brought out in the statement, 
popular among fanciers, "Shape 
- makes the breed; color the variety.' 





Fig. 28. 
Cochin Leg and Toe Featherin 
B,B, Lower Thigh; C,C, Shan! 



A, Upper Thigh; 
D,D, Toe. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



27 




Fig. 29. 
One Form of Twisted 
Single Comb (a defect). 



Vulture-Hock (Vulture-Feathered) : The stiff quill feathers growing 
on the thighs, extending backward, straight beyond the knee-joint or 
"hock"; to disqualify, they must be without a sufficient quantity of 
fluffy feathers to relieve the stiff appearance 
and fill up the sharp angles, viewed in profile. 
(See Fig. 30.) 

V-Shaped Comb: A comb formed of two well-de- 
fined, horn-like sections. (See Fig. 9.) 

Wattle? The pendent growths at the sides and 
base of the beak. 

Web: Web of Feather: The flat or plumed portion 
of a feather, made up of a series of barbs on 
either side of the shaft. Web of Feet : The flat 
skin between the toes. Web of Wings: The tri- 
angular skir attaching the wing to the body, 
visible when wing is extended. 

* Wing-Bar: The stripe or bar of color 
extending across the middle of the 
wing, formed by the color or mark- 
ing of the wing-coverts. (See dia- 
gram of fowl.) 

* Wing-Bay: The triangular section of 
the wing, below the wing-bar, 

Yi'JW^W^'^^^^V'^ formed by the exposed portion of 

the secondaries when the wing is 
folded. (See diagram of fowl.) 
^Wing-Bow: The upper or shoulder 
F [* ^ part of the wing. (See diagram 

Vulture-Hock (a defect in Cochins; Standard of f owl .) 

faSultans) - Wing-Points: The ends of the prima- 

ries; erroneously called "wing- 
butts." 

Wing-Coverts: The small, close feath- 
ers clothing the bend of the wing 
and covering the roots of the second- 
ary quills. (See diagram of fowl.) 

Wing-Fronts: The front edge of the 
wing at the shoulder. This section 
of the wing is sometimes called 
wing-butts. The term wing-fronts is 
recommended, thus avoiding con- 
fusion. 

Wry Tail: Tail of a fowl turned to one 

side, permanently so. (See Fig. 31.) ghowing w g^"<a ^^ 





(Name of Association here) 



(Date, month, days and year show is held, here) 

Official Score Card of the American Poultry Association 

Exhibitor 

Variety Sex 

Entry No Band No Weight 



Shape 



Color 



Remarks 



Symmetry 

Weight or Size 

Condition 

Comb 

Head 

Beak 

Eyes 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes. 

Neck 

Wings 

Back 

Tail 

Breast 

Body and Fluff 

Legs and Toes 

"j" Crest and Beard 

* Shortness of Feather... 
Total Cuts 



Score. 



t Applies to crested breeds. * Applies to Games and Game Bantams. 



, Judge 

., Secretary 



INSTRUCTIONS TO JUDGES. 



Merit: The merit of specimens shall be determined by a careful 
examination of all the points in the "Scale of Points," beginning with 
Symmetry and continuing through the list s deducting from the full value 
of each section of a perfect bird, for such defects as are found in each 
specimen. 

Weight: (a) All specimens shall be judged according to their stand- 
ard weights; provided, however, that the disqualifying weights for chicks 
and poults shall not apply until December 1st of each year, (b) In all 
breeds of fowl having weight clauses, except Bantams, deduct two points 
per pound for amount lacking from standard weights, and in that pro- 
portion for any fractional part of a pound, using one-fourth pound as the 
minimum, the specimen to have the benefit of any fraction less than one- 
fourth pound, (c) In all varieties of Bantams, deduct one-half point 
per ounce for any excess over standard weights, (d) In all varieties of 
turkeys and geese, and in all varieties of ducks except those prized for 
their smallness, having weight clauses, deduct three points per pound for 
amount lacking from standard weights, and in that proportion for any 
fractional part of a pound, using one-fourth pound as a minimum, the 
specimen to have the benefit of any fraction less than one-fourth pound. 
(e) In all varieties of fowls, except Bantams, also in all varieties of tur- 
keys and geese, and all varieties 
of ducks except those prized 
for their smallness, when adult 
specimens are equal in score 
and are above or below stand- 
ard weight, the one nearest 
standard weight shall be 
awarded the prize, except 
when one specimen is cut for 
weight and the other is not, 
the specimen that is standard 
weight or above shall be 
awarded the prize. (/) All chicks or immature specimens — except Ban- 
tams and those varieties of ducks prized for their smallness — having an 
equal score, when cut for lack of weight, the one of less weight shall be 
awarded the prize, but when each of such specimens are of standard 
weight, the heaviest one shall win. (g) In all varieties of Bantams, and 
those varieties of ducks prized for their smallness, other things being 

29 




Fig. 32. 

Diagram showing Degrees from Horizonta 



30 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 



equal, the smallest bird shall win. (CAUTION — The weight clause 
must not be understood to mean that a small, but over-fat bird is within 
the spirit of the meaning of the Standard; the size must be proportionate 
to the weight, preserving the ideal shape and type of the standard bird.) 
Re-weighing: The judge may, at his option, demand the re- weighing 
of the specimens in competition, in all cases where standard weights apply. 
Size: Size shall be determined by comparison of the specimens. 
In all varieties (except Call and East Indian Ducks) having a section 
termed "Size," and not being subject to weight clauses, the largest bird, 
other things being equal, shall win; in Call and East Indian Ducks this 
rule is reversed and the smallest specimen shall win. 

Scores Entitling Specimens to Prizes: To receive a first prize 
the specimen must score 90 or more points, 
except cocks in all parti-colored varieties, 
which may be awarded first prizes, provided 
they score 88 points or better. For each 
receding prize drop one point. A pen to 
win a first prize, must score 180 points or 
better, unless it contains a cock of a parti- 
' colored variety, in which case 178 points or 
better may win first prize, but first prize 
shall not be given on a pen if the male in 
pen scores less than 88 points. No prize 
shall be awarded an exhibition pen if any 
bird in the pen scores less than 85 points. 

Sweepstake Prizes: In competition 
for sweepstake prizes when solid-colored 
specimens compete with parti-colored specimens, white specimens shall 
be handicapped two points each, black specimens one and one-half points 
each, and buff specimens one point each, and, after such reduction the 
specimen then having the highest score, or the specimens having the 
highest average or combined score, shall be awarded the prize. Bantams, 
water-fowl or turkeys are not eligible to compete for sweepstake prizes. 

Old and Young Birds: All other points being equal, where prizes 
are offered on old and young fowls competing together, the former shall 
be awarded the prizes. 

Faking: Faking of any description shall debar from competition 
specimens so treated; also every other bird entered by the exhibitor show- 
ing the faked specimen or specimens. (See Glossary for what is meant 
in this connection by faking.) 

Creaminess and Brassiness: In white varieties, except where the 
color of plumage is specified as creamy white, the presence of brassiness 
on surface, or creaminess of quills or under-color, is a serious defect and 
is to be punished accordingly. 




Fig. 33. 
Tail carried at Angle of 45 Degrees. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



31 



Score of Exhibition* Pen: In ascertaining the score of an exhibi- 
tion pen, add the scores of the females together and divide the sum by the 
number of females in the pen; to the 
quotient thus obtained, add the score of the 
male, and this sum shall be the score of the 
exhibition pen. 

Dated Score Cards: All score cards 
made out by judges applying the Standard 
are to be dated by the judge with ink, in- 
delible pencil, or by stamp, on the date the 
specimens are judged. 

Faulty Score Cards: It shall be con- 
sidered irregular for a judge to sign a score 
card unless weight is considered, in all 
breeds and varieties having standard 
weights, regardless of season. 

Ties: In case of ties between two or 
more specimens that cannot be broken by any of the previous rules, 
the specimen receiving the smallest total sum of cuts for shape shall be 
awarded the prize. In case of ties in exhibition pens, should either pen 
contain one or more adult specimens, that pen shall be awarded the 
prize. In case of all pens containing all young, or all adult specimens, 
the prize shall be awarded to the pen containing the highest scoring 
male. 




Fig. 34. 
Tail cnrried at Angle of 50 Degrees. 






IN APPLYING THE COMPARISON SYSTEM. 

Typical Shape: In awarding prizes by comparison, judges must 
consider carefully each and every section of the specimen, and not allow 
color alone to influence their decisions. The vital importance of tvpical 
shape is to be borne constantly in mind, at the same time giving due con- 
sideration to color in all sections, including under-color. 

Handling: All specimens in competition must be handled and ex- 
amined by the judge, except those that show decided inferiority as seen in 
the coops. 

Valuation: In awarding prizes under this system, ever} 7 section of 
each specimen must be given full consideration, valuing it, both in shape 
and color, as provided by the Standard "Scale of Points" for the breed. 
No judge, in applying the Standard by this system, shall give any one sec- 
tion undue prominence in arriving at his decision. 

Disqualifying Weights: Specimens falling below disqualifying 
weights after December 1 st of each year must be debarred from competi- 
tion, except Bantams, which, when exceeding disqualifying weights, shall 
suffer a like penalty. 



32 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Standard Size: In determining size, the judge shall decide by com- 
paring the specimens in competition, with due regard to weight in all 
breeds and varieties where weight is required by the Standard. When a 
bird fails to attain to, or in case it exceeds, the size proportionate with the 
type or shape, it must be discounted quite severely. It is desirable that 
the judge recognize and reward those specimens that come nearest to the 
ideal, in shape, size and weight, still giving the important and vital matter 
of correct plumage full credit. 

Bantam Type: While smallness of size is desirable in all Bantams, 
no specimen shall be entitled to win over a larger bird simply because of 
its small size; it must conform to the type and symmetry demanded for 
the breed it represents. 

Game Type: In judging Games, Game Bantams, Cornish and Su- 
matras, it is imperative that shape be considered of greatest importance. 
Specimens lacking in this essential breed-characteristic shall not be 
awarded first honors, even if there be no competition. 

Color Defects: A few very small, grayish specks in white fowls 
shall not debar a specimen that otherwise is superior in color from winning 
over one less typical in shape and sound in color; provided, however, that 
the grayish specks do not appear prominently in the primary, secondary, 
or main tail feathers. 

The natural white bird shall not be handicapped by the apparently 
bleached one, and, other things being equal, the natural white bird shall win. 

Scaly Leg: A fowl whose legs and toes are so deformed by what is 
called "Scaly Leg" as to hide or appear to have destroyed the color, shall 
not be awarded a first prize. 

Note: Under the comparison system judges must deduct the full 
valuation of the cuts in all sections, where a specified cut is made under 
the head of "Cutting for Defects." 

GENERAL DISQUALIFICATIONS. 

Note: In applying the Standard of Perfection, if judges find any of the 
defects described below, they shall disqualify the specimen and state on 
the proper card or blank the nature of the disqualification. 

In the Asiatic breeds, except Lang- 
shans, and in Cochin Bantams and Booted 
White Bantams, shanks not feathered down 
the outer sides; outer toes not feathered to 
the last joint. 

In Langshans, shanks not feathered 

down the outer sides: feathers not growing 

beyond the middle joint of the outer toes. 

p. 35 In Silkies and Sultans, shanks not 

Five-Toed Foot (ideal). feathered down the outer sides. 




STANDARD OF PERFECTION 33 

In all breeds required to have unfeathered shanks, any feather or 
feathers, stubs or down on shanks, feet or toes; or unmistakable indications 
of feathers having been plucked from same. 

A wing showing clipped flights or secondaries, or both, except in 
water-fowl, shall disqualify the specimen and debar it from competition. 

Lopped combs, except in Mediterranean and Dorking females; rose 
combs falling over to one side, or so large as to obstruct the sight; combs 
foreign to the breed; split or fish-tail comb (see illustration); decidedly 
wry tails; crooked backs; side sprig or sprigs on all single-comb varieties; 
plucked hocks; deformed beaks; absence of spike in all rose-comb varie- 
ties, except Silkies, Malays and Malay Bantams; decidedly squirrel tail 
in all breeds, except Japanese Bantams. 

In four-toed breeds, more or less than four toes on either foot. 

In five-toed breeds, more or less than five toes on either foot. 

Legs and toes of color foreign to breed. 

Entire absence of main tail fea'hers. 

Positive white in the face of Mediterranean cockerels and pullets, 
except White-faced Black Spanish. 

Absence of crest or beard in any variety described as crested or 
bearded, or any appearance of crest or beard in any variety where not 
called for. Absence of knob or dewlap in African Geese. 

Absence of knob in Chinese Geese. 

Web feet in all breeds of chickens. 

Birds unworthy of a score. 

In any breed having weight clauses, except Asiatics or Bantams, a 
specimen falling more than two pounds below Standard weight; any 
specimen belonging to the Asiatic classes falling more than three pounds 
below Standard weight; any Bantam weighing more than four ounces 
over- weight. 

Black in the bean or bill of Pekin and Aylesbury drakes. 

In varieties where positive white in ear-lobes is a disqualification, 
judges shall disqualify for unmistakable evidence of an attempt to re- 
move the defect. 

Faking in any manner shall disqualify the specimen. 

The comb on a specimen which merely turns over a trifle from the 
natural upright position is not to disqualify. 

Under all disqualifying clauses the specimen shall have the benefit 
of the doubt. 

CUTTING FOR DEFECTS. 

Judges, in applying the score card, are to discount for the more com. 
mon defects, as follows: Paints 

Too many or too few points on comb, each \ 

Thumb mark on comb, not less than 1 



34 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Points 

Rear of comb turning around \ to 1 

Coarse texture of comb \ to 1 

Roughness, irregularity, hollow center, over-size and ill-shape in 

comb of rose-comb varieties, each defect \ to 2 

Coarse texture of wattles £ to 1 

For missing feather or part of feather in primaries or secondaries, 

where foreign color disqualifies 1 to 3 

Where feather is broken, but not detached, in primaries or sec- 
ondaries, where foreign color disqualifies \ 

For broken or missing feather or feathers in primaries or second- 
aries of buff or parti-colored varieties, where foreign color 
does not disqualify \ 

Absence of sickles, where foreign color disqualifies, for each sickle 1^ 

Absence of sickles, where foreign color does not disqualify, for 
each sickle 1 

Absence of one or more main tail feathers, in varieties subject to 
color disqualifications, each 1 

Absence of one or more main tail feathers, where not a disquali- 
fication, each \ 

For twisted feather or feathers, in wing or tail of any variety. . . 1 to 2 

Feathered middle toes in Langshans \ to \\ 

Brassiness in all varieties, in each section where found 1 to 2 

Creaminess of plumage or quill in white varieties, except where 

specified creamy white, in each section where found \ to 1 \ 

Purple barring in plumage of all varieties, in each section where 

found \ to 2 

Frosty edging in any laced section of laced or spangled varieties, in 

each section where found \ to \\ 

Irregular, indistinct, crescentic or too heavy lacing in laced varie- 
ties, in each section where found \ to 1^ 

Irregular barring in Barred Plymouth Rocks, in each section 

where found \ to \\ 

Light colored shafting in buff varieties, in each section where 

found \ to \\ 

Gray specks in any part of plumage of white varieties, in each sec- 
tion where found \ to 2 

Mealiness in plumage of buff varieties, in each section where 

found \ to H 

Mossy-centered feathers in laced varieties, in each section where 

found \ to 2j 

Irregular or deficient penciling in penciled varieties, in each sec- 
tion where found \ to 1 \ 

Black or white in buff varieties, in each section where found, cut 
from \ point to the color limit in the section. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 35 

Points 
Slate under-color in buff varieties and Rhode Island Reds, in each 

section where found J to 2 

Color of eyes not as described for the different varieties \ to 1^ 

If eye shows permanent injury, but retains its form \ to 1 

If eye is destroyed, leaving only the socket 1 \ 

Ear-lobes of Wyandottes showing any positive enamel white \ to 2 

Any positive white in the ear-lobes of any variety of Cochins \ 

Positive white covering one-third or more of the surface of ear- 
lobes of any variety of Cochins 1 to 2 

Red markings directly above the eyes of White-Faced Black 

Spanish \ to 1 \ 

For positive white in face of cocks of Mediterranean class, except 

in White-Faced Black Spanish \ to %\ 

Pinched or "Gamy" tails in Leghorn females \ to lh 

If tail in any variety shows not to exceed three-fourths develop- 
ment 1 

If tail in any variety shows not to exceed one-half development. ... 2 
If tail in any variety shows not to exceed one-fourth development. . 3 
For black in bean of white ducks (females), except in White Mus- 

covys 1 

For black in bill of white ducks (females), except White Muscovys, 

other than black in bean 1 to 1^ 

Down between the toes of all clean-shanked varieties % to 2 

Crooked keel or breast bone \ to 2 

For each bare toe in Brahmas 1 

Crooked toes, each J to 1 

In Barred Plymouth Rocks for black feather or feathers, in each 

section where found \ to 1 \ 



DESCRIPTION OF BREEDS. 



Breeds 



Class I. 
AMERICAN. 



Plymouth Rocks . 



I 



Varieties 

Barred 

White 

Buff 

Silver Penciled 

Partridge 

Columbian 

Silver 

Golden 

White 

Buff 

Black 

Partridge 

Silver Penciled 

Columbian 

Javas ( ?*** , 

I Mottled 

Dominiques Rose Comb 

Rhode Island Reds j Single Comb 

( Rose Comb 

Buckeyes Pea Comb 



Wyandottes. 



SCALE OF POINTS FOR THE AMERICAN CLASS. 

Symmetry 4 

Weight 4 

Condition 4 

Comb 8 

Head — ■ Shape 2, Color 2 i 4 

Beak — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Eyes — ■ Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Wattles and Ear-lobes — Shape 2, Color 3 5 

Neck — Shape 3, Color 5 8 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 5 9 

Back — Shape 6, Color5 11 

Tail — Shape 5, Color5 10 

Breast — Shape 6, Color 5 11 

Body and Fluff — Shape 5, Color3 8 

Legs and Toes — Shape 3, Color 3 _. 6 

86 100 



PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 

The Plymouth Rocks for many years have continued as America's 
most popular fowl. They belong to those classed as "general purpose 
fowls," breeds that have proven value as market-poultry and as layers. 
The pioneer variety was the Barred Plymouth Rock, which was first ex- 
hibited in March, 1869, at Worcester, Mass. In size the Plymouth Rock 
is intermediate between the Asiatic and Mediterranean breeds. The 
most typical and useful specimens are those which are bred nearest to 
Standard weights. They mature rapidly and have much merit to com- 
mend them to those growing poultry for market, as well as those desiring 
good egg production, as they are producers of large, brown eggs in goodly 
numbers. To one who is familiar with the extremes in fowls as regards 
length of the various sections, the Plymouth Rock will be recognized as 
medium, or rather long and rather deep in all sections. The six varieties — 
the Barred, White, Buff, Silver Penciled, Partridge and Columbian — 
are identical, except in color. The color of the Barred variety is exceed- 
ingly difficult to describe; in fact, the true and exact shades can be learned 
only by observation. The colors should be modified black and white in 
all sections, the bars narrow, regular and running parallel across the 
feathers, the over-lapping of the feathers producing a bluish tinge when 
viewed under certain light-reflections. The perfect colored Barred Ply- 
mouth Rock should show the same shade of color in all sections and be 
barred to the skin. The White variety of this breed is clear white, as the 
name indicates. It should be free from brassiness, creaminess and straw 
color in all sections of the plumage. The combination of clear white 
plumage, with bright red comb, wattles, ear-lobes, face and eyes, and 
yellow legs and beak, is both desirable and obtainable. The shade of 
color in the plumage of the Buff variety is a rich golden buff. What are 
termed cinnamon and lemon buff are the two extremes that should be 
avoided. A harmonious blending of buff in all sections is most desirable, 
i.e., the same shade of color should prevail throughout the specimen. 
The contrast of black and white in males, and finely penciled steel-gray 
in females will attract many to the Silver Penciled variety. 

STANDARD W'EIGHTS. 

Cock 9jlbs. Hen 1\ lbs. 

Cockerel 8 lbs. Pullet 6 lbs. 

37 



38 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Moderately large, broad, medium in length. 

Beak: Stout, comparatively short, regularly curved. 

Eyes: Full, prominent. 

Comb: Single, rather small in proportion to size of specimen, set 
firmly on the head, straight and upright, evenly serrated, having five well- 
defined points, those in front and at rear a trifle smaller than the other 
three, giving the comb a semi-oval appearance when viewed from the side; 
fine in texture; blade not conforming too closely to head. 

Wattles and E ar-Lobes : Wattles, moderately long, free from ser- 
rations, nicely rounded at the lower edges, equal in length, fine in texture, 
free from folds or wrinkles. Ear-lobes, oblong, smooth, hanging about 
half the length of wattles. 

Neck: Rather long, slightly arched, having abundant hackle flow- 
ing well over shoulders. 

Wings: Of medium size, well folded; wing-fronts well covered by 
the breast feathers and wing-points well covered by the saddle feathers. 

Back: Rather long, broad its entire length, flat at shoulders, nearly 
horizontal from neck to saddle, where there is a slight concave sweep to 
tail; saddle feathers, rather long, abundant, filling well in front of tail. 

Tail: Of medium length, moderately well spread, carried at an 
angle of forty-five degrees from the horizontal, forming no apparent angle 
with the back; sickles, well curved, covering tops of main tail feathers, 
conforming to the general shape of the tail ; lesser sickles and tail-coverts 
of medium length, nicely curved and sufficiently abundant to almost hide 
the stiff feathers of the tail when viewed from front or side. 

Breast: Broad, moderately deep, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rather long, broad, deep, full; keel-bone, 
rather long, straight, extending well forward, connecting with breast so 
as to make no break in outline. Fluff, moderately full. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, large, of medium length, well covered with 
soft feathers. Shanks, of medium length, smooth, straight, stout, set well 
apart. Toes, straight, of medium length, well spread. Shanks and toes 
free from feathers, stubs or down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Moderately large, broad, medium in length. 

Beak: Comparatively short, regularly curved. 

Eyes: Full, prominent. 

Comb: Single, small, proportional to the size of the specimen, set 
firmly on the head, straight and upright, evenly serrated, having five well- 
defined points, those in front and at rear being somewhat smaller and 
shorter than the other three. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 39 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, small, well rounded, equal in 
length, fine in texture. Ear-lobes, oblong in shape, smooth. 

Neck: Medium in length, nicely curved and tapering to head, where 
it is comparatively small; hackle, moderately full, flowing well over the 
shoulders with no apparent break at juncture of neck and back. 

Wings: Of medium size, well folded; wing-fronts, well covered by 
the breast feathers. 

Back: Rather long, broad its entire length, flat at shoulders, rising 
with a slightly concave incline to tail. 

Tail: Of medium length, fairly well spread, carried at an angle of 
thirty-five degrees from the horizontal, forming no apparent angle with 
the back; tail -coverts, well developed. 

Breast: Broad, moderately deep, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rather long, moderately deep, full; keel 
bone, rather long, straight from front to rear and extending well forward, 
connected with the breast so 1 as to make no break in outline. Fluff, full, 
of medium length. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium size and length, well covered 
with soft feathers. Shanks, of medium length, set well apart, stout and 
smooth. Toes, of medium size and length, straight, well spread. Shanks 
and toes free from feathers, stubs or down. 

BARRED PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Positive white in ear-lobes; red in any part of plumage; two or more 
solid black primaries, secondaries or main tail feathers; shanks other 
than yellow, with due allowances for fading with age, dark spots not to 
disqualify. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: Yellow; red showing at outside of shanks back 
of scales, not a defect in males. 

Plumage: Grayish- white, each feather crossed by regular, narrow, 
parallel, sharply-defined, dark bars that stop short of positive black; free 
from shafting, brownish tinge or metallic sheen; the light and dark bars 
to be of equal width and to extend throughout the length of the feathers 
in all sections of the fowl, each feather on females ending with a narrow, 
dark tip, the combination of overlapping feathers giving the plumage a 
bluish appearance. 



40 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BARRED PLYMOUTH ROCK MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 41 




BARRED PLYMOUTH ROCK FEMALE 



42 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

WHITE PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 

D isqualificat ions. 

Positive white in ear-lobes; red, buff or positive black in any part of 
plumage; shanks other than yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Yellow. 
Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 
Shanks and Toes: Rich yellow; red showing at outside of shanks 
back of scales, not a defect in males. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers, in all sections, pure white. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 43 

BUFF PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 

D isqualifications. 

Positive white in ear-lobes; shanks other than yellow. (See general 
disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Rich yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: Rich yellow; red showing at outside of shanks, 
back of scales, not a defect. 

Plumage: Surface throughout an even shade of rich, golden buff, 
free from shafting or mealy appearance, the head, neck, hackle, back, 
wing-bows and saddle richly glossed; under-color, a lighter shade, free 
from foreign color. Different shades of buff in two or more sections is a 
serious defect. A harmonious blending of buff in all sections is most 
desirable. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Rich yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face. Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: Rich yellow. 

Plumage: Surface throughout an even shade of rich, golden buff, 
free from shafting or mealy appearance, the head and neck plumage 
showing a luster of the same shade as the rest of the plumage; under- 
color, a lighter shade, free from foreign color. Different shades of buff 
in two or more sections is a serious defect. A harmonious blending of 
buff in all sections is most desirable. 



44 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




WHITE PLYMOUTH ROCK MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 45 




WHITE PLYMOUTH ROCK FEMALE 



46 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 







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BUFF PLYMQUTH ROCK MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



47 











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BUFF PLYMOUTH ROCK FEMALE 



48 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

SILVER PENCILED PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Positive white in ear-lobes; shanks and toes other than yellow or 
dusky yellow. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head : Plumage, silvery white. 

Beak: Yellow, or dusky yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Silvery white, with a lustrous, greenish-black stripe extend- 
ing down each feather, and running nearly parallel with edges of feather, 
and tapering to a point near its extremity; under-color, slate or bluish- 
white. 

Wings: Wing-bows, silvery white; primaries, black, excepting a 
narrow edging of white on lower edge of lower web; secondaries, black, 
except lower half of lower web, which should be white, except near end 
of feathers, at which point the white terminates abruptly leaving the end 
of the feathers black; wing-coverts, lustrous greenish-black, forming a 
well-defined bar of this color across wing when folded. 

Back: Silvery white, free from brown; saddle, silvery white, with a 
black stripe in each feather, same as hackle; under-color, slate or bluish- 
white. 

Tail: Black; sickles, lustrous greenish-black; coverts, lustrous green- 
ish-black, edged with white. 

Breast: Black; under-color, slate or bluish- white. 

Body and Fluff: Body, black; under-color, slate or bluish- white. 
Fluff, black, slightly tinged with gray. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black. Shanks and toes, yellow, or dusky 
yellow; red showing at outer sides of shanks back of scales, not a defect. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery gray. 

Beak: Yellow, or dusky yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Silvery white, with broad black stripe running nearly parallel 
with edges and extending down middle of each feather, tapering to a point 
near its extremity and free from white shaft; under-color, slate. 

Wings: Primaries, black, with narrow edge of steel-gray penciling 
on lower web; secondaries, upper web black, lower web gray, with distinct 
dark penciling extending around outer edge of feather; shoulder and wing- 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 40 

coverts, steel-gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which conform 
to shape of feather; under-color, slate. 

Back: Steel-gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which con- 
form to shape of feather; feathers free from white shaft; under-color, 
slate. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers which are penciled on upper 
edge; coverts, gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which con- 
form to shape of feather. 

Breast: Steel-gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which 
conform to shape of feather, the penciling reaching well up on throat; 
under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, steel-gray, with distinct dark penciling, 
outlines of which conform to shape of feather, the penciling reaching well 
down on thighs. Fluff, steel-gray, tinged with lighter shade; under- 
color, slate. 

Legs and Toes. Thighs, gray, with distinct penciling. Shanks 
and toes, yellow or dusky yellow. 

Note: Each feather in hock, breast, body and wing-bows to have 
two or more distinct pencilings, 



50 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SILVER PENCILED PLYMOUTH ROCK MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



51 




SILVER PENCILED PLYMOUTH ROCK FEMALE 



52 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

PARTRIDGE PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Positive white in ear-lobes; positive white extending into tail feathers 
of cockerel; shanks other than yellow or dusky yellow. (See general 
disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, bright red. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading to yellow at point. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Bright red, with a lustrous greenish-black stripe running 
nearly parallel with edges and extending through each feather, tapering 
to a point near its extremity; under-color, slate. 

Wings: Wing- bows, dark red; fronts, black; primaries, black, lower 
edges of web, reddish-bay; secondaries, black, outside web reddish-bay 
terminating with greenish-black at end of each feather; coverts, lustrous 
greenish-black, forming well-defined bar of this color across wing when 
folded. 

N Back: Dark red; saddle, bright red, with lustrous greenish-black 
stripe down the middle of each feather, same as in hackle; under-color, 
slate. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish-black, edged with 
bright red. 

"Breast: Lustrous black; under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, black. Fluff, black; under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black, under-color, slate Shank plum- 
age, black or brownish-black. Shanks and toes, yellow or dusky yellow. 
Toe plumage, black or brownish- black. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, mahogany brown. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading into yellow at point. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck- Bright red, with a lustrous black stripe extending down the 
middle of each feather, running nearly parallel with edge of feather and 
tapering to a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Wing-bows, mahogany brown, penciled with black; pri 
maries, black, with edging of mahogany brown on outer web; second- 
aries, inner web black, outer web mahogany brown penciled with black, 
penciling conforming to shape of feather. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 53 

Back: Mahogany brown, distinctly penciled with black, the out- 
lines of penciling conforming to shape of feather; under-color, slate. 

Tail: Black, the two top feathers black, penciled with mahogany 
brown on upper edge; coverts, mahogany brown, penciled with black. 

Breast: Mahogany brown, distinctly penciled with black, the pen- 
ciling being of same character as that of back and extending to throat; 
under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, mahogany brown, penciled with black. 
Fluff, mahogany brown; under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thigh, shank and toe plumage, mahogany brown, 
penciled with black. Shanks and feet, yellow or dusky yellow. 






54 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




PARTRIDGE PLYMOUTH ROCK MALE 



fiSft 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



55 







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PARTRIDGE PLYMOUTH ROCK FEMALE 



56 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

COLUMBIAN PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Positive white in ear-lobes; shanks other than yellow. (See general 
disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Yellow, with dark stripe down upper mandible. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Plumage, other than hackle, white; hackle, web white, with 
solid, lustrous greenish-black stripe extending from fluff down middle of 
each feather, running nearly parallel with edges of feather and tapering 
to a point near its extremity. Under-color, white, bluish-white or slate. 

Wings : Wing- bows, white, except fronts which may be partly black ; 
primaries, black, with white edging on lower edge of lower web; second- 
aries, lower portion of lower web white, sufficient to secure a white wing- 
bay, the white extending around ends of feathers and lacing upper por- 
tion of upper web, this color growing wider in the shorter secondaries, 
the five next to the body being white on surface when wing is folded; 
remainder of each secondary, black. 

Back: Surface color, white; cape, black and white; saddle, white, 
with occasional feathers striped with black; under-color, either white, 
bluish-white or slate. 

Tail: Black, the curling feathers underneath, white, or black and 
white; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish-black; lesser coverts, lustrous 
greenish-black, edged with white. 

Breast: Surface and under-color, white; under-color at juncture 
with body, white, bluish white or slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, white, except under wings where it may 
be white, bluish- white or slate; under-color, white or bluish- white. Fluff, 
white; under-color, white or bluish- white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, surface color, white; under-color, white 
or bluish-white. Shanks and toes, yellow; red showing at outer sides 
back of scales not a defect. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Yellow, or yellow with dark stripe down the upper mandible. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Hackle, beginning at juncture of head with neck, web, white, 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 57 

with a solid, wide, lustrous greenish-black stripe, extending down middle 
of each feather, running nearly parallel with edges of feather and tapering 
to a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Wing- bows, white; primaries, black, with white edging on 
lower edge of lower web; secondaries, lower portion of lower web, white, 
sufficient to secure a white wing-bay, the white extending around the ends 
and lacing upper portion of upper web, this color growing wider in the 
shorter secondaries, the five next to the body being white on the surface 
when wing is folded; remainder of each secondary, black. 

Back: Surface, white, occasional black ticking not a serious defect; 
cape, white, or black and white; under-color, white, bluish-white or slate. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers which are edged with white; 
tail-coverts, black, edged with white. 

Breast: Surface and under-color, white; under-color, at juncture 
with body, white or bluish-white. 

Body and Fluff: Body, white, except under wings, where it may 
be white or bluish- white; under-color, white or bluish-white. Fluff, 
white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white; under-color, white or bluish-white. 
Shanks and toes, yellow. 



58 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




COLUMBIAN PLYMOUTH ROCK MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



59 




COLUMBIAN PLYMOUTH ROCK FEMALE 



WYANDOTTES. 

The Wyandottes* are of American origin and were known in their 
early history by several names — each section of the country where they 
were found seeming to have a name that was given by the breeder who 
first introduced them. They were known as Sebrights, Mooneys, Ameri- 
can Sebrights and a number of names which their peculiar markings 
would indicate. The name Wyandotte was not applied until they were 
admitted to the Standard in 1883. It was thought by some that this 
name would injure their popularity, but by eliminating all former names 
it seems to have done much to make them the more popular. Just 
what breeds entered into the first Silver Wyandottes it is impossible to 
say. That Dark Brahmas and Silver Spangled Hamburgs were two of 
them, has been proven, as a cross of these two gives a breed that resembles 
them, but fails in shape and partly in color, showing that some other — 
an unknown — cross was added. They have, since their admission to the 
Standard, been one of the most popular middle-weight breeds. 

The wide range of color found in the eight varieties allows every 
admirer to indulge his fancy. Each variety has points of color difficult 
to obtain, and when obtained, places a high valuation on the specimen. 
No one variety can claim a higher fancy or commercial value than the 
other, as all are popular, and all are much sought for. Whichever variety 
one may choose, he will find interesting color problems to solve. In the 
Whites, it will be how to secure fine white plumage and escape creami- 
ness and brassiness; in the Blacks, how to obtain greenish, glossy black, 
without the purple barring; in the Silvers, how to obtain silvery hackles 
and saddles free from brassiness, large, oval white centers free from 
mossiness, and breast lacing free from white edging; in the Goldens, how 
to get the correct shade of golden bay, which in this variety supplants the 
white of the Silvers; in the Buffs, how to secure an even shade of rich, 
golden buff, and have the same shade of color prevail through the speci- 
men, and to avoid the out-cropping of black and white; in the Partridge 
and Silver Penciled varieties, how to obtain the rich foundation color with 
distinct, clean-cut lacing in neck and back of males, with the fine double 
penciling in females; in the Columbians, how to keep the surface of neck, 
back and wing-bows of males free from brassiness, and secure distinct lac- 
ing of neck, with black tails, laced coverts and black wing-flights, and the 
beautiful laced neck and tail-coverts of females, with black wing-flights. 

*Note: Fred A. Houdlette, who suggested the name Wyandotte, says the name was given in honor 
of a coasting vessel bearing the name Wyandotte, which belonged to his father. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 61 

In shape, Wyandottes have a type peculiarly their own. It is em- 
phatically a bird of curves. Fanciers should strive to maintain its short, 
broad back and deep, round body. These characteristics exceed in value 
all color considerations and are found in the typical Wyandotte at all ages, 
whether alive or dressed. Its curved, close-fitting comb adds to the sym- 
metry of the bird. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock Sh lbs. Hen 6* lbs. 

Cockerel 7$ lbs. Pullet oh lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Short, round, broad. 

Beak: Short, well curved. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb: Rose, low, firm on head; top, oval and surface covered with 
small, rounded points, tapering to a well-defined point at rear; the entire 
comb curving to conform to shape of skull. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, moderately long, nicely rounded 
at lower edges, equal in length, fine in texture, free from folds or wrinkles. 
Ear-lobes, oblong, well-defined, hanging about half the length of wattles, 
smooth. 

Neck: Short, well arched; hackle, abundant, flowing well over 
shoulders. 

Wings: Small, not carried too close to body; sides well rounded. 

Back: Short, broad, flat at shoulders; saddle, broad, full, rising with 
concave sweep to tail; saddle feathers, abundant. 

Tail: Short, well spread at base, carried at an angle of fifty degrees 
from the horizontal (see illustration); sickles, moderately long, curving 
gracefully and closely over tail; coverts, abundant, filling out well in front, 
almost hiding the stiff feathers. 

Breast: Broad, deep, round. 

Body and Fluff: Body, short, deep, round, with low-set keel. 
Fluff, full-feathered, well rounded. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, stout, showing outline of shape 
when viewed sideways, well covered with soft feathers; shanks, short, 
stout, set well apart, well rounded. Toes, straight. Shanks and toes 
free from feathers, stubs and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Short, round; crown, broad. 

Beak: Short, well curved. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb: Rose, similar to that of male, but much smaller. 



62 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Wattles, fine in texture, well rounded. 
Ear-lobes, oblong in shape, well defined, smooth. 

Neck: Short, well arched; hackle, abundant. 

Wings: Small, well rounded, well folded; wing-fronts, well covered 
by breast feathers. 

Back: Short, broad, flat at shoulders, rising in a concave sweep to a 
broad, slightly- rounded cushion, which extends well on to main tail; 
plumage, abundant. 

Tail: Short, well spread at base, carried at an angle of forty degrees 
from the horizontal. (See illustration.) Coverts, abundant. 

Breast: Broad, deep, round. 

Body and Fluff: Body, short, deep, round, with low-set keel. 
Fluff, full-feathered, well rounded. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, stout, well spread, showing outline 
of shape when viewed sideways, well covered with soft feathers; shanks, 
short, set well apart, stout, well rounded. Toes, straight. Shanks and 
toes free from feathers, stubs and down. 

SILVER WYANDOTTES. 

Disqualifications. 

Ear-lobes more than one-quarter positive enamel white; shanks 
other than yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery white, each feather having a black stripe, 
tapering to a fine point near its extremity. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading to yellow at point. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Bright red. 

Neck: Silvery white, a clear, black stripe through each feather, 
tapering to a point near its extremity; shafts of feathers, white; under- 
color, slate. 

Wings: Primaries, black, lower edge white; secondaries, black, 
lower half of outer web white, with a narrow black edging wider at the 
tip, wing-coverts, upper web black, lower web white, with a narrow black 
stripe along the edge that widens as it approaches the tip, forming a double 
bar of laced feathers across wing; wing-bows, silvery white; under-color, 
slate. 

Back: Silvery white; saddle, silvery white, a black stripe through 
each feather, tapering to a point near its extremity, having a tapering, 
diamond-shaped center of white: under-color, slate. 

Tail: Black; sickles and greater coverts, lustrous greenish- black; 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 63 

lesser coverts, black, with diamond-shaped white centers, feathers laced 
with white. 

Breast: Web of each feather, white, laced with a narrow, lustrous 
greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to edge of feather; 
under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, web of each feather, white, laced with a 
narrow, lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to 
edge of feather; under-color, slate. Fluff, slate, powdered with gray; 
under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, web of each feather, white, laced with a 
narrow, lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to 
edge of feather; under-color, slate. Shanks and toes, yellow; red showing 
at outer sides, back of scales, not a defect. Shanks, free from feathers, 
stubs and down. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery gray. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading to yellow at point. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Silvery white, with a black stripe through each feather, 
tapering to a point near its extremity; shafts of feathers, white; under- 
color, slate. 

Wings: Primaries, black, the lower edge, white; secondaries, black, 
lower half of outer web white, with a narrow black edging, wider at the tip; 
shoulders and wing-coverts, white, each feather laced with a narrow, 
lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to the edge 
of the feather; wing-bows, Avhite, each feather laced with a narrow, lustrous 
greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to edge of the feather; 
under-color, slate. 

Back: W T eb of each feather, white, laced with a narrow, lustrous 
greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to edge of feather; 
under-color, slate. 

Tail: Black; the upper sides of the two top feathers edged with 
white; greater coverts, black: lesser coverts, black with white centers. 

Breast: White, each feather laced with a narrow, lustrous greenish- 
black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to edge of feather; under-color, 
slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, web of each feather, white, laced with a 
narrow, lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to 
edge of feather; under-color, slate. Fluff, slate, powdered with gray; 
under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, web of each feather, white, laced with a 
narrow, lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to 
edge of feather: under-color, slate. Shanks and toes, yellow. 



64 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SILVER WYANDOTTE MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



65 




SILVER WYANDOTTE FEMALE 



66 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

GOLDEN WYANDOTTES. 

Disqualifications. 

Ear-lobes more than one-quarter positive enamel white; shanks other 
than yellow or dusky yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, golden bay, each feather having a black stripe, 
tapering to a fine point near its extremity. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading to yellow at point. 

Eyes : Bay, or reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Golden bay, with a clear black stripe through each feather, 
tapering to a point near its extremity; shafts of feathers, golden bay; 
under-color, slate. 

Wings: Primaries, black, lower edge golden bay: secondaries, black, 
lower half of outer web golden bay, with a narrow black edging, wider 
at tip; wing-coverts, upper web black, lower web golden bay, with a nar- 
row black stripe along the edge that widens as it approaches the tip, 
forming a double bar of laced feathers across wing; wing-bows, golden 
bay; under-color, slate. 

Back: Golden bay; saddle, golden bay with a black stripe through 
each feather, tapering to a point near its extremity, having a diamond- 
shaped center of golden bay; under-color, slate, tinged with golden bay. 

Tail: Black; sickles and greater coverts, lustrous greenish-black; 
lesser coverts, black, with diamond-shaped golden bay centers, feathers 
laced with golden bay. 

Breast: Web of each feather, golden bay, laced with a narrow, 
lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to edge of 
feather; under-color, slate, tinged with golden bay. 

Body and Fluff: Body, web of each feather, golden bay, laced with 
a narrow, lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to 
edge of feather; under-color, dark slate, tinged with golden bay. Fluff, 
slate, tinged with golden bay; under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, web of each feather, golden bay, laced 
with a narrow, lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform 
to edge of feather; under-color, slate, tinged with golden bay. Shanks 
and toes, yellow, or dusky yellow; red showing at outer sides, back of 
scales, not a defect. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, golden bay. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading to yellow at point. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 67 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Golden bay, with a black stripe through the center, each 
feather tapering to a point near its extremity; shaft of feathers, golden 
bay; under-color, slate. 

Wings: Primaries, black, the lower edge golden bay; secondaries, 
black, lower half of outer web golden bay, with a narrow black edging 
wider at the tip; shoulders and wing-coverts, lustrous black, with oval- 
shaped, golden bay centers; lacing heavier over wing- bows; under-color, 
slate, tinged with golden bay. 

Back: Web of each feather, golden-bay, laced with a narrow, lus- 
trous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to edge of feather; 
under-color, slate, tinged with golden bay. 

Tail: Black; the upper sides of the two top feathers edged with 
golden bay. Greater coverts, black; lesser coverts, black, with golden 
bay centers. 

Breast: Golden bay, each feather laced with a narrow, lustrous 
greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform to edge of feather; 
under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, web of each feather, golden bay, laced 
with a narrow, lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform 
to edge of feather; under-color, slate, tinged with golden bay. Fluff,, 
slate, tinged with golden bay. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, web of each feather, golden bay, laced 
with a narrow, lustrous greenish-black, sharply defined lacing, to conform 
to edge of feather; under-color, slate, tinged with golden bay. Legs and 
toes, yellow or dusky yellow. 



68 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




GOLDEN WYANDOTTE MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



69 




GOLDEN WYANDOTTE FEMALE 



70 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

WHITE WYANDOTTES. 

Disqualifications. 

Ear-lobes more than one-quarter positive enamel white; red, buff or 
positive black in any part of plumage; shanks other than yellow. (See 
general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Yellow. 
Eyes: Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 
Shanks and Toes: Rich yellow; red showing at outer sides, back of 
scales, not a defect in males. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure while. 

BLACK WYANDOTTES. 

D isqu all fi cations . 

Ear-lobes more than one-quarter positive enamel white; red in any 
part of plumage or white in any feather extending more than one-half 
inch; shanks other than black, shading into yellow or willow; bottoms of 
feet other than yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Black, shaded with yellow. 
Eyes: Black, or dark brown. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 
Shanks and Toes: Black, shading into yellow or willow. 
Bottoms of Feet: Yellow. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish-black throughout; under- 
color, black. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 71 

BUFF WYANDOTTES. 

Disqualifications. 

Ear-lobes more than one-quarter positive enamel white; shanks 
other than yelkow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Rich yellow. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: Rich yellow; red showing at outer sides, back of 
scales, not a defect. 

Plumage: Surface throughout an even shade of rich, golden buff, 
free from shafting or mealy appearance, the head, neck, hackle, back, 
wing-bows and saddle richly glossed; under-color, a lighter shade, free 
from foreign color. Different shades of buff in two or more sections is a 
serious defect. A harmonious blending of buff in all sections is most 
desirable. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Rich yellow. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Eak-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes : Rich yellow. 

Plumage: Surface throughout an even shade of rich, golden buff, 
free from shafting or mealy appearance, the head and neck plumage 
showing luster of the same shade as the rest of the plumage: under-color 
a lighter shade, free from foreign color. . Different shades of buff in two 
or more sections is a serious defect. A harmonious blending of buff in 
all sections is most desirable. 



72 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




WHITE WYANDOTTE MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



73 




WHITE WYANDOTTE FEMALE 



74 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BUFF WYANDOTTE MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 75 




BUFF WYANDOTTE FEMALE 



76 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

PARTRIDGE WYANDOTTES. 

Disqualifications. 

Ear-lobes more than one-quarter positive enamel white; shanks other 
than yellow or dusky yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head : Plumage, bright red. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading to yellow at point. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Bright red, with a lustrous greenish- black stripe running 
nearly parallel with edges and extending through each feather, tapering 
to a point near its extremity; under-color, slate. 

Wings: Primaries, black, lower edges reddish-bay; secondaries, 
black, outside web, reddish-bay, terminating with greenish-black at end 
of each feather; coverts, lustrous greenish-black, forming a well defined 
bar of this color across wing, when folded; wing- bows, dark red; fronts, 
black. 

Back: Dark red; saddle, bright red, with a lustrous greenish-black 
stripe down the middle of each feather, same as in hackle; under-color, 
slate. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish-black; lesser 
coverts, lustrous greenish-black, edged with bright red. 

Breast: Lustrous black; under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body and fluff, black, marked with reddish- 
brown, reddish-brown not to predominate; under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; shanks and toes, yellow; red 
showing at outer sides, back of scales, not a defect. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, mahogany brown. 

Beak: Dark brown, shading to yellow at point. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Reddish-bay, center portion of feathers black penciled with 
mahogany brown extending down middle of each feather, running nearly 
parallel with edges of feather and tapering to a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Primaries, black, with edging of mahogany brown on outer 
web; secondaries, inner web, black; outer web, mahogany brown, penciled 
with black; coverts, mahogany brown, penciled with black, penciling con- 
forming to shape of feather; wing-bows, mahogany brown, penciled with 
black. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 77 

Back: Mahogany brown, distinctly penciled with black, the outlines 
of penciling conforming to shape of feathers; under-color, slate. 

Tail: Black, the two top feathers, black, penciled with mahogany 
brown; coverts, mahogany brown, penciled with black. 

Breast: Mahogany brown, distinctly penciled with black, the pen- 
ciling being of the same character as that of back and extending to throat; 
under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, mahogany brown, penciled with black; 
fluff, mahogany brown; under-coloi% slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, mahogany brown, penciled with black; 
shanks and toes, yellow, or dusky yellow. 

Note: Each feather in back, breast, body and wing-bows to have 
two or more distinct pencilings and to be free from shafting. 



78 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




PARTRIDGE WYANDOTTE MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



79 




PARTRIDGE WYANDOTTE FEMALE 



80 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

SILVER PENCILED WYANDOTTES. 

Disqualifications. 

Ear-lobes more than one-quarter positive enamel white; shanks 
other than yellow, or dusky yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery white. 

Beak: Yellow, or dusky yellow. 

Eyes : Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Silvery white, with a lustrous greenish-black stripe extending 
down each feather, running nearly parallel with edges of feather and taper- 
ing to a point near its extremity; under-color, slate or bluish-white. 

Wings: Primaries, black, excepting a narrow edging of white on 
lower edge of web; secondaries, black except lower half of lower web which 
should be white, except near end of feather, at which point the white ter- 
minates abruptly, leaving end of feather black; coverts, lustrous greenish- 
black, forming a well defined bar of this color across wing when folded; 
bows, silvery white. 

Back: Silvery white, free from brown; saddle, silvery white, with a 
black stripe in each feather same as hackle; under-color, slate. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish- black; lesser 
coverts, lustrous greenish-black, edged with white. 

Breast: Black; under-color, slate, or bluish- white. 

Body and Fluff: Body, black; under-color, slate, or bluish-white. 
Fluff, black, slightly tinged with gray. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; shanks and toes, yellow, or dusky 
yellow; red showing at outer sides, back of scales, not a defect. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery gray. 

Beak: Yellow, or dusky yellow. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Silvery white, with broad black stripe running nearly parallel 
with edges and extending down middle of each feather, tapering to a point 
near its extremity and free from white shaft; under-color, slate. 

Wings: Primaries, black, with narrow edging of gray penciling on 
lower web; secondaries, upper web, black; lower web, steel-gray, with 
distinct dark penciling extending around outer end of feather; shoulder 
and wing coverts, steel-gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of 
which conform to shape of feather; under-color, slate. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 81 

Back: Steel-gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which 
conform to shape of feathers; feathers free from white shafts; under-color, 
slate. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers, which are penciled on 
upper edge; coverts, steel-gray with distinct dark penciling, outlines of 
which conform to shape of feather. 

Breast: Steel-gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which 
conform to shape of feather, the penciling reaching well up on throat; 
under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, steel-gray, with distinct dark penciling, 
outlines of which conform to shape of feather, the penciling reaching well 
down on thighs. Fluff, gray, tinged with lighter shade; under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, steel-gray, with distinct penciling; shanks 
and toes, yellow, or dusky yellow. 

Note: Each feather in back, breast, body and wing-bows to have 
two or more distinct pencilings. 



82 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SILVER PENCILED WYANDOTTE MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



83 




SILVER PENCILED WYANDOTTE FEMALE 



84 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

COLUMBIAN WYANDOTTES. 

Disqualifications. 

Ear-lobes more than one-quarter positive enamel white; shanks other 
than yellow. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Yellow, with dark stripe down upper mandible. 

Eyes: Bay, or reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Plumage, other than hackle, white; hackle, web white, with 
solid, lustrous greenish- black stripe extending from fluff down middle 
of each feather, running nearly parallel with edges of feather and tapering 
to a point near its extremity. Under-color, white, bluish-white or slate. 

Wings: Wing-bows, white, except fronts which may be partly black; 
primaries, black, with white edging on lower edge of lower web; second- 
aries, lower portion of lower web white, sufficient to secure a white wing- 
bay, the white extending around ends of feathers and lacing upper portion 
of upper web, this color growing wider in the shorter secondaries, the five 
next to the body being white on surface when wing is folded; remainder 
of each secondary, black. 

Back: Surface color, white; cape, black and white; saddle, white, 
with occasional feathers striped with black; under-color, either white, 
bluish-white or slate. 

Tail: Black, the curling feathers underneath, white, or black and 
white; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish-black; lesser coverts, lustrous 
greenish-black, edged with white. 

Breast: Surface and under-color, white; under-color at juncture 
with body, white, bluish-white or slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, white, except under wings where it may be 
white, bluish- white or slate; under-color, white, or bluish- white. Fluff, 
white; under-color, white, or bluish- white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, surface color, white; under-color, white or 
bluish- white. Shanks and toes, yellow; red showing at outer sides, back 
of scales, not a defect. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Yellow, or yellow with dark stripe down the upper mandible. 
Eyes : Bay, or reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 
Neck: Hackle, beginning at juncture of head with neck, web, white, 
with a solid, wide, lustrous greenish-black stripe extending down middle 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 85 

of each feather, running nearly parallel with edges of feather and tapering 
to a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Wing- bows, white; primaries, black, with white edging on 
lower edge of lower web; secondaries, lower portion of lower web, white, 
sufficient to secure a white wing-bay, the white extending around the ends 
and lacing upper portion of upper web, this color growing wider in the 
shorter secondaries, the five next to the body being white on the surface 
when wing is folded; remainder of each secondary, black. 

Back: Surface, white, occasional black ticking not a serious defect: 
cape, white, or black and white; under-color white, bluish- white or slate. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers which are edged with white: 
tail-coverts, black edged with white. 

Breast: Surface and under-color, white; under-color, at juncture 
with body, white or bluish-white. 

Body \nd Fluff: Body, white, except under wings where it may be 
white or bluish- white; under-color, white or bluish- white. Fluff, white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white; under-color, white, or bluish- white; 
shanks and toes, yellow. 



86 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




COLUMBIAN WYANDOTTE MALE 



STAXDA1W OF PERFECTION 



87 




COLUMBIAN WYANDOTTE FEMALE 



JAVAS. 

This breed presents the extreme length of body found in the Ameri- 
can class. The back and keel are long, which feature, together with the 
breadth of back, depth of body, the full, well-rounded breast and smooth 
posterior, gives the breed a type peculiarly its own. The neck and tail of 
both male and female are medium in length. The thighs are large and 
well-meated. Shanks are of medium size, standing well apart. The 
color of the face, comb and wattles of the black variety is described as 
gipsy (see glossary). The comb of both varieties is rather high at rear, 
the serrations being nearly on a line. The color of plumage of the black 
variety is a rich, lustrous black, with greenish sheen. Purple barring is 
a serious defect. The color of plumage of the mottled variety is black 
and white throughout. These colors should be sharply divided, each dis- 
tinct in itself, the black predominating. The skin of both varieties is 
yellow. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 9% lbs. Hen 7$ lbs. 

Cockerel 8 lbs. Pullet 6^ lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head : Of medium length and breadth. 

Beak: Stout, well curved. 

Eyes: Large, full. 

Comb: Single, rather small, straight and upright, firm on head, lower 
in front; evenly serrated, having five well-defined points; fine in texture; 
blade free from serrations. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of medium length, well rounded 
at ends, smooth; fine in texture. Ear-lobes, small, oblong. 

Neck: Of medium length, arched; hackle, abundant. 

Wings: Rather large, well folded. 

Back: Long, broad, with slight decline to a concave sweep near tail; 
saddle feathers, abundant. 

Tail: Rather long, moderately full and expanded, carried at an 
angle of forty-five degrees from the horizontal; sickles, long and grace- 
fully curved; main tail feathers, long. 

Breast: Long, deep, full. 

88 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 8!) 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, broad, deep. Fluff, moderate in 
quantity, even on surface. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, large, strong, well 
covered with close-fitting feathers; shanks, of medium length, stout in 
hone. Toes, of medium length, straight, strong, well spread. Shanks 
and toes free from feathers, stubs and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Of medium size. 

Beak: Strong, well curved. 

Eyes: Of medium size, oval, full. 

Comb: Single, small, straight and upright, lower in front; evenly 
serrated, having five well-defined points; fine in texture. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of medium size, well rounded, 
smooth; fine in texture. Ear-lobes, small. 

Neck: Of medium length, slightly arched. 

Wings: Rather large, well folded. 

Back: Long, full near tail-coverts. 

Tail: Rather long, full, slightly expanded. 

Breast: Broad, deep, full. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, broad, deep. Fluff, moderate in 
quantity, even on surface 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, large, strong, well 
covered with close-fitting feathers; shanks, of medium length, stout in 
bone. Toes, of medium length, straight, strong, well spread. Shanks 
and toes free from feathers, stubs and down. 

BLACK JAVAS. 

D isq ual ificat ions. 

Positive white in ear-lobes; foreign color in any part of plumage: 
skin, or u^ttoms of feet, other than yellow. (See general disqualifica- 
tions.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Black. 

Eyes: Black, or dark brown. 
~^Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Red, or gipsy color. 

Shanks and Toes: Shanks, black, or nearly black with a tendency 
toward willow; black preferred. Toes, same color as shanks, except 
under parts which must be yellow; bottoms of feet, yellow. 

Plumage: Rich, lustrous black with greenish sheen, free from purple 
barring. 



90 'AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BLACK JAVA MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



91 




BLACK JAVA FEMALE 



92 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

MOTTLED JAVAS. 

Disqualifications. 

Positive white in ear-lobes; red or brassy color in any part of plumage; 
skin, or bottoms of feet, other than yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Horn, or horn and yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Red. 

Shanks and Toes: Broken leaden-b!ue and yellow. 

Plumage: Mottled black and white throughout, black predominating. 



DOMINIQUES. 

Disqualification s 

Permanent white in ear-lobes; any feather or feathers, or portion of a 
feather, of any color foreign to the breed, excepting solid black and black 
and white feathers. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 7 lbs. Hen 5 lbs. 

Cockerel 6 lbs. Pullet 4 lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Of medium size, carried well up. 

Beak: Short, stout, regularly curved. 

Eyes: Large, clear. 
~^Comb: Rose, not so large as to overhang the eyes or beak; firm and 
straight on head, square in front, uniform on sides, free from hollow in 
center, terminating in a spike at rear, the point of which turns slightly 
upward; top covered with small points. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, broad, full, pendent. Ear- 
lobes, oblong, of medium size. 

Neck: Of medium length, well arched, tapering; hackle, abundant. 

Wings: Rather large, well folded; wing-bows and points, well cov- 
ered by breast and saddle feathers. 

Back: Of medium length, broad, rising with concave sweep to tail. 

Tail: Long, full, slightly expanded; sickles, long, well curved. 

Breast: Broad, round and carried well up. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 93 

Body and Fluff: Body, broad, full, compact. Fluff, moderately 
full. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, large, strong, well 
covered with soft feathers; shanks, fine in bone. Toes, of medium length, 
straight, well spread. Shanks and toes free from feathers, stubs and 
down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Small. 

Beak: Short, stout, regularly curved. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 
^Comb: Rose, similar to that of male, but much smaller. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, rather small and well rounded. 
Ear-lobes, of medium size, oblong. 

Neck: Short, slightly arched, tapering. 

Wings: Rather large, well folded. 

Back: Of medium length, broad, slightly concave. 

Tail: Full, rather long, slightly expanded, carried at an angle of 
forty-five degrees from the horizontal. 

Breast: Round, full. 

Body and Fluff: Bodv, broad, full, compact. Fluff, moderately 
full. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, large, strong, well cov- 
ered with soft feathers; shanks, fine in bone. Toes, of medium length, 
straight, well spread. Shanks and toes free from feathers, stubs and 
down. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: Yellow. 
-Plumage: Slate, feathers in all sections of the fowl, crossed through- 
out their entire length, by regular, parallel, sharply defined, dark and light 
bars that stop short of positive black and positive white, tip of each feather 
dark, free from shafting, brownish tinge, or metallic sheen; under-color, 
slate: excellence to be determined by distinct contrasts, and evenness and 
clearness of barring. The male may be one or two shades lighter than 
the female. 



93a AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 







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DOMINIQUE MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



93b 




DOMINIQUE FEMALE 



RHODE ISLAND REDS. 

(Single and Rose Comb.) 

The Rhode Island Reds are an American production now generally 
regarded at poultry exhibitions as being a new breed, though they have 
been bred in large numbers for practical purposes in Rhode Island during 
many years, taking their name from that State. They are believed to 
have originated from crosses of the Asiatics, Mediterraneans and Games. 
Their chief characteristics are: red color, oblong shape, compact form and 
smooth surface plumage. 

D isqualifications. 

Ear-lobes more than one-half positive white; one or more entirely 
white feathers showing in the outer plumage; shanks and feet other than 
vellow or reddish-horn. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 8£ lbs. Hen 6£ lbs. 

Pullet 5 lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Medium size, carried horizontally and slightly forward. 

Beak: Medium length, slightly curved. 

Eyes: Large, oval, prominent. 

Comb: Single, medium in size, set firmly upon head, perfectly straight 
and upright, with five, even and well-defined points, those in front and 
rear smaller than those in the center; of considerable breadth where it 
joins to the head; blade smooth, not conforming too closely to shape of 
head, free from serrations. 

Comb: Rose, low, firm on head; top, oval in shape, and surface cov- 
ered with small points terminating in a small spike at the rear. The comb 
to conform to the general curve of the head. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of medium size, equal in length, 
regularly curved, free from folds and wrinkles. Ear-lobes, oblong, well 
defined, smooth, proportionate in size to other head adjuncts. 

Neck: Medium length; hackle, abundant, flowing over the shoulders, 
not too loosely feathered. 

Wings: Of good size, well folded, carried horizontally. 

94 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 9.> 

Back: Broad, long, carried horizontally, with slight concave sweep 
to tail; saddle feathers, of medium length, abundant. 

Tail: Of medium length, well spread, carried at an angle of forty 
degrees from the horizontal, thus increasing the apparent length of the 
fowl; sickles, of medium length, extending slightly beyond main tail 
feathers; lesser sickles and tail-coverts, of medium length, large, well 
covered with soft feathers. 

Breast: Deep, full, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, broad, deep, long; keel-bone, long, straight, 
extending w r ell forward, giving body an oblong appearance; feathers 
carried close to body. Fluff, moderately full. 

Shanks and Toes: Shanks, of medium length, well rounded, smooth, 
set well apart. Toes, of medium length, straight, strong, well spread. 
Shanks and toes free from feathers, stubs and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head : Medium size, carried horizontally and slightly forward. 

Beak: Medium length, slightly curved. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb: Single, medium in size, set firmly upon head, perfectly straight 
and upright, with five, even and well defined points, those in front and 
rear smaller than those in center. 

Comb: Rose, low, firm on head, much smaller than that of the male, 
and, in proportion to its length, narrower; covered with small points and 
terminating in a small, short spike at the rear. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, of medium size, equal in length, 
regularly curved. Ear-lobes, oblong, well defined, smooth, proportionate 
in size to other head adjuncts. 

Neck: Of medium length; hackle, moderately full. 

Wings: Rather large, well folded; fronts, well covered by breast 
feathers; flights, carried nearly horizontal. 

Back: Broad, long, carried horizontally. 

Tail: Rather short, moderately spread, carried at an angle of thirty- 
five degrees from the horizontal. 

Breast: Deep, full, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, broad, deep, long; keel-bone, long, straight, 
extending well forward, giving body an oblong appearance; feathers car- 
ried close to body. Fluff, moderately full. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, well covered with soft 
feathers; shanks, of medium length, well rounded, smooth. Toes, of med 
ium length, straight, strong, well spread. Shanks and toes free from 
feathers, stubs and down. 



96 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Reddish-horn. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes : Bright red. 

Neck: Rich, brilliant red; under-color, red. 

Wings: Wing-bows, brilliant red; primaries, upper web red, lower 
web black with narrow edging of red, only sufficient to prevent the black 
from showing on surface when wings are folded in natural position; 
primary-coverts, black; secondaries, lower web red, the red extending 
around the ends of the feathers, the remainder of each feather, black; the 
five feathers next to the body being red on the surface so that the wing, 
folded in natural position, shall show one harmonious red color; wing- 
coverts, red. 

Back: Rich, brilliant red; under-color, red. 

Tail: Main tail and sickle feathers, black or greenish-black; tail 
coverts, mainly black, but may become red as they approach the saddle. 

Breast: Rich red; under-color, red. 

Body and Fluff: Rich red; under-color, red. 

Shanks and Toes: Rich yellow, or reddish-horn color. A line of 
red pigment down sides of shanks extending to tip of toes is desirable. 

Plumage: General surface, rich, brilliant red except where black is 
specified, free from shafting or mealy appearance; depth of red color is 
slightly accentuated on wing-bows and back, but the less contrast between 
these sections and the hackle and breast, the better. A harmonious blend- 
ing of all sections is desired. The bird should be so brilliant in luster as 
to have a glossed appearance. The under-color should be red. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Reddish-horn. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Bright red. 

Neck: Surface color red, with slight ticking at end of feathers on 
lower hackle; under-color, red. 

Wings: Wing-bows red; primaries, upper web red, lower web black 
with narrow edging of red, only sufficient to prevent the black from show- 
ing on surface when wings are folded in natural position; primary coverts, 
black; secondaries, lower web red, the red extending around the ends of the 
feathers; the remainder of each feather, black; the five feathers next to 
the body, red on the surface, so that the wing, folded in natural position, 
shall show one harmonious red color; wing-coverts, red. 

Back: Rich red; under-color, red. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers which may be edged with 
red. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 97 

Breast: Rich red; under-color, red. 

Body and Fluff: Red; under-color, red. 

Shanks and Toes: Rich yellow, or reddish-horn color; a line of red 
pigment down sides of shanks, extending to tip of toes is desirable. 

Plumage: General surface color, rich, even red, except where black 
is specified, free from shafting or mealy appearance; under-color, red. 



98 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 






/*#*%#* / 



RHODE ISLAND RED MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



99 




RHODE ISLAND RED FEMALE 



BUCKEYES. 

D isqualifications. 

Ear-lobes more than one-fourth enamel white; entirely white feathers. 
(See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 9 lbs. Hen 6 lbs. 

Cockerel 8 lbs. Pullet 5 lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head : Of medium size, carried well up. 

Beak: Short, stout, regularly curved. 

Eyes: Of medium size, full, bright, with bold expression. 

Comb: Pea, medium, firm, set closely on head. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, medium size, of equal length, 
moderately rounded. Ear-lobes, of medium size. 

Neck: Of medium length, well arched, tapering nicely; hackle, 
abundant, flowing well over shoulders. 

Wings: Of medium size, well folded; wing-bows and wing-points, 
well covered by breast and saddle feathers, respectively. 

Back: Broad at shoulders, rather long, rising with slight concave 
sweep to tail; saddle feathers, abundant. 

Tail: Of medium length and size, carried moderately upright: 
sickles and coverts, of medium length, nicely curved, sufficiently abundant 
to cover well the stiff feathers. 

Breast: Broad, deep, well rounded, carried somewhat elevated 
above the horizontal. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rather long, broad, deep, full, heavy for 
size of bird; keel-bone, long, straight, extending well forward. Fluff, 
moderately full. 

Legs and Toes : Thighs, of medium length, large, well covered with 
soft feathers; shanks, of medium length, stout, smooth, set well apart. 
Toes, of medium length, straight, strong, well spread. Shanks and toes 
free from feathers, stubs and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 
Head : Of medium size, carried well up. 
Beak: Short, stout, regularly curved. 

100 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 101 

Eyes: Of medium size, full, bright. 

Comb: Pea, small, set closely on head. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, of equal length, moderately 
rounded. Ear-lobes, of medium size. 

Neck: Of medium length, well curved; hackle, moderately full. 

Wings: Of medium size, well folded. 

Back: Broad, rather long, rising very slightly to tail. 

Tail: Of medium length, fairly well spread, carried moderately 
upright. 

Breast: Broad, deep, well rounded, carried somewhat elevated above 
the horizontal. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, broad, deep, full, heavy for size of 
bird; keel-bone, long, straight, extending well forward. Fluff, moderatelv 
full. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length and size, well covered 
with soft feathers; shanks, of medium length, stout, smooth, set well apart. 
Toes, of medium length and size, straight, well spread. Shanks and toes 
free from feathers, stubs and down. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Yellow, shaded with reddish-horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear.- Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: Yellow, red back of scales not a defect. 
^-Plumage: General surface, mahogany bay, slightly accentuated on 
wing-bows; under-color, salmon, or slate and salmon. The unexposed 
flight feathers and main tail feathers may contain black: sickles and cov- 
erts should be shaded bay and black, thus avoiding a sharp contrast be- 
tween body and tail. Shaft of feathers, bay entire length. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes : Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes : Yellow. 
* Plumage : General surface, mahogany bay. The unexposed flight 
feathers and main tail feathers may contain black; under-color, salmon, or 
slate and salmon. 



102 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




if.tfW 3ntp+~ 



BUCKEYE MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



Hl.'i 




BUCKEYE FEMALE 



Class II. 

ASIATIC. 

Breeds Varieties 

Brahmas j Light 

{Dark 
| Buff 

Cochins .- J Partridge 

White 
Black 

Langshans J Black 

1 White 



I 



SCALE OF POINTS FOR ASIATIC CLASS. 

Symmetry 4 

Weight 6 

Condition 4 

Comb 8 

Head — Shape 3, Color 3 (> 

Eyes — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes — Shape 2, Color 3 5 

Neck — Shape 4, Color 5 9 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — Shape 6, Color 5 11 

Tail — Shape 4, Color 5 9 

Breast — Shape 5, Color 5 10 

Body and Fluff — Shape5, Color3 8 

Legs and Toes — Shape 5, Color 3 8 

~100 



104 



BRAHMAS. 

The Brahma male should have that strength and grace of carriage 
which naturally belongs to a well-proportioned fowl of its size and finish. 
The head, when well furnished, lends style and character to the bird's 
commanding appearance. The body should be large, well rounded and 
free from any tendency to excessive fluff. The Standard does not provide 
for apparent cushion in Brahmas, either male or female. The Brahma 
male should be of a distinctive type quite unlike the Cochin in form and 
feather, being more compactly and firmly put together. The solidity of 
form and compactness of plumage unite, in the standard Brahma male, 
to produce a finely-proportioned fowl of large size and active nature. 
Comb, color and markings should he well defined, embodying the true 
Brahma characteristics. 

The Brahma female has the fine, graceful lines that properly belong 
to her as the mate of the stately and powerful male of this breed. She 
lacks rotundity of form as compared with the full-feathered Cochin, her 
body being more compact and closely feathered. The proper sweep of 
back from saddle to tail is formed largely by the distinctively Brahma 
spread of tail, which continues and finishes the back line, and fills out the 
side lines to proper form, within the true contour of Brahma shape. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Of medium length, broad; crown projecting well over eyes. 

Beak: Stout, well curved. 

Eyes: Large, deep set. 
" Comb: Pea, small, firm and even on head, lower and narrower in 
front and at rear than at center; each row evenly serrated; points in front 
and at rear smaller than those of center. 

Wattles and Ear-Lohes: Wattles, of medium size, well rounded. 
Ear-lobes, large, the lower edges on a level with, or slightly below, edges 
of wattles. 

Neck: Moderately long, well arched: hackle, abundant, flowing over 
shoulders and meeting under throat, dividing at lower ends of wattles and 
flowing full at sides. 

Wings: Small, carried rather high, with lower line nearly horizontal; 
sides, well rounded; primaries, closely folded under secondaries. 

Back: Broad, rather long, flat across shoulders earning its width 
well back to tail, rising with slightly concave incline from shoulders to 

10.5 



106 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

middle of saddle, where it takes a more pronounced concave sweep well 
up on tail; saddle, abundant, flowing full over sides, filling well in front 
of tail and covering wing-points. 

Tail: Rather large, full, well spread, carried high enough to continue 
concave sweep of back, filled underneath with curling feathers; sickles, 
short, spreading laterally; coverts, plentiful, but not so long as to cover 
the entire length of lower main tail feathers. 

Breast: Broad, deep, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rather long, deep, well rounded at sides. 
Fluff, abundant, smooth in surface, giving specimen a broad but compact 
appearance. 

Legs and Toes: Legs, straight, set well apart; thighs, stout, well 
covered with soft feathers, nicely rounded, free from vulture-like feather- 
ing; shanks, large, stout in bone, of sufficient length to properly balance 
specimen, well covered on outer sides with feathers. Toes, straight, 
stout; outer and middle toes, well feathered. 



SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Of medium length, broad; crown projecting well over eyes. 

Beak: Stout, well curved. 

Eyes: Large, deep set. 

Comb: Pea, low, firm and even on head; well serrated, the middle row 
higher and more distinctly serrated than the other two. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, small. Ear-lobes, large. 

Neck: Of moderate length, slightly arched; rather full under throat, 
hens having dewlap between wattles. 

Wings: Small, carried rather high, with lower line nearly horizontal; 
sides, well rounded; fronts, covered by breast feathers; primaries, closely 
folded under secondaries. 

Back: Broad, rather long, flat across shoulders with moderate incline 
to tail, carrying the width well back to tail. 

Tail: Medium length, well spread at base, resembling an inverted 
"V" with wide angle when viewed from rear, carried high enough to con- 
tinue the sweep of back; tail-coverts, two rows, covering a greater part of 
both sides of main tail. 

Breast: Broad, deep, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, deep, well rounded at sides. Fluff, 
abundant, smooth in surface, giving specimen a broad but compact appear- 
ance. 

Legs and Toes: Legs, straight, set well apart; thighs, stout, well 
covered with soft feathers; shanks, of medium length, stout in bone, well 
feathered on outer sides. Toes, straight, stout; outer and middle toes, 
well feathered. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 107 

LIGHT BRAHMAS. 

Disqualifications. 

Solid black feathers in back; positive black spots prevalent in web 
of feathers of back, except slight dark or black stripes in saddle of males 
near tail, or in cape of either sex; vulture-like hocks; shanks any color other 
than yellow or reddish-yellow; cocks not weighing nine pounds; hens not 
weighing seven and one-half pounds; cockerels not weighing seven and 
one half pounds; pullets not weighing six pounds. (See general disquali- 
fications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 12 lbs. Hen 9| lbs. 

Cockerel 10 lbs. Pullet 8 lbs. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Yellow, with dark stripe down upper mandible. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Plumage, other than hackle, white; hackle, web white with 
solid, lustrous greenish-black stripe extending from fluff down middle of 
each feather, running nearly parallel with edge of feather and tapering to a 
point near its extremity; under-color, Avhite, bluish-white or slate. 

Wings: Bows, white, except fronts, which may be partly black; 
primaries, black with white edging on lower edge of lower web; second- 
aries, lower portion of lower web white, sufficient to secure a white wing- 
bay, the white extending around ends of feathers and lacing upper portion 
of upper web, this color growing wider in the shorter secondaries, the five 
next to the body being white on surface when wing is folded; remainder 
of each secondary, black. 

Back: Surface color, white; cape, black and white; saddle, white; 
under-color, either white, bluish-white or slate. 

Tail: Black; the curling feathers underneath, white or black and 
white; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish-black; lesser coverts, lustrous 
greenish-black, edged with white. 

Breast: Surface and under-color, white; under-color, at juncture 
with body, white, bluish-white or slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, white, except under wings, where it may 
be white, bluish-white or slate; under-color, white or bluish-white. Fluff, 
white; under-color, white or bluish-white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, surface color, white; under-color, white or 
bluish- white; shank feathers, white; outer toe feathering, white and black; 
if black, laced with white; shanks and toes, yellow. 



108 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




JJLGHT .BliAHMA MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



109 




LIGHT BRAHMA FEMALE 



110 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Yellow, with dark stripe down the upper mandible. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Hackle, beginning at juncture of head with neck, web, white, 
with a solid, wide, lustrous greenish-black stripe extending down middle 
of each feather, running nearly parallel with edge of feather and tapering 
to a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Bows, white; primaries, black with white edging on lower 
edge of lower web; secondaries, lower portion of lower web white, suffi- 
cient to secure a white wing-bay, the white extending around the ends and 
lacing upper portion of upper web, this color growing wider in the shorter 
secondaries, the five next to the body being white on surface when wing 
is folded; remainder of each secondary, black. 

Back: White; cape, white or black and white; under-color, white or 
bluish-white. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers which are edged with white; 
tail-coverts, black edged with white. 

Breast: Surface and under-color, white; under-color, at juncture 
with body, white or bluish-white. 

Body and Fluff: Body, white, except under wings, where it may 
be white or bluish-white; under-color, white or bluish-white. Fluff, 
white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white; under-color, white or bluish-white; 
shank feathers, white; outer toe feathers, white and black; if black, laced 
with white; shanks and toes, vellow. 



DARK BRAHMAS. 

Disqualifications. 

Vulture-like hocks; cocks not weighing nine pounds; hens not weigh- 
ing seven pounds; cockerels not weighing seven and one- half pounds; 
pullets not weighing five and one-half pounds. (See general disquali- 
fications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 
Cock 11 lbs. Hen 8^ lbs- 
Cockerel 9 lbs. Pullet 7 lbs. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery white. 

Beak: Dark horn shading to yellow at point. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION HI 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Hackle, silvery white, Avith a lustrous greenish-black stripe 
extending down middle of each feather, running nearly parallel with edge 
of feather, tapering to a point near its extremity; shafts free from white; 
under-color, slate. 

Wings: Bows, silvery white; primaries, black, except a narrow edging 
of white on lower edge of lower web; secondaries, black, except lower half 
of lower web which should be white except near end of feather, at which 
point the white terminates abruptly, leaving end of feather black; wing- 
coverts, glossy greenish-black, forming a well-defined bar of this color 
across wing when folded. 

Back: Silvery white, free from brown; saddle, silvery white, with a 
black stripe in each feather, same as hackle; under-color, slate. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish-black; lesser 
coverts, lustrous greenish-black, edged with white. 

Breast: Black; under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, black; under- color, slate. Fluff, black, 
slightly tinged with gray; under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; shank feathers, black or black mixed 
with v/hite, black preferred; shanks and toes, yellow. Toe feathers, 
black. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head : Plumage, silvery gray. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading to yellow at point. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, W attles and Ear- Lobes : Bright red. 

Neck: Silvery white, with broad black stripe running nearly parallel 
with edges of and extending down middle of each feather, tapering to a 
point near its extremity and free from white shaft; under-color, slate. 

Wings: Primaries, black, with narrow edge of gray penciling on 
lower web; secondaries, upper web black, lower web gray, with distinct 
dark penciling extending around outer end of feathers; shoulder and wing- 
coverts, gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which conform to 
shape of feathers; under-color, slate. 

Back: Gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which conform 
to shape of feather; feathers free from white shafts; under-color, slate. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers which are penciled on upper 
edge; coverts, gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which conform 
to shape of feathers. 

Breast: Gray, with distinct dark penciling, outlines of which con- 
form to shape of feather, the penciling reaching well up on throat; under- 
color, slate. 



112 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




DARK BRAMHA MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



113 




DARK BRAHMA FEMALE 



114 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Body and Fluff: Body, gray, with distinct dark penciling reaching 
well down on thighs. Fluff, gray, tinged with lighter shade; under-color, 
slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, gray, with distinct penciling; shanks and 
toe feathers, same shade of gray; toe feathers, penciled. Shanks and toes, 
yellow or dusky yellow. 

Note: Each feather in back, breast, body and wing-bows to have 
two or more distinct pencilings. 



COCHINS. 

The Cochin male should be a very deep-bodied, massive, vigorous 
bird, possessing a dignified carriage, but showing a tendency to lean for- 
ward. The keel should be low and the saddle, or cushion, well up. The 
outline of every section should be well rounded and free from flat or con- 
cave surfaces. The extraordinary profusion of long, loose plumage, and 
the great abundance of downy fibre in the under fluff, produce a large, 
bulky appearance, conveying the idea of even greater weight than exists 
in reality. Hard or close-fitting plumage is a very serious defect. 

The Cochin female should correspond, in a feminine way, with the 
male, but shoud be shorter and rounder, possessing a more plump appear- 
ance. The back of the Cochin female seems shorter than it really is, 
owing to the difference in the character of the neck and cushion plumage. 
The cushion is more pronounced than in the male, being very large and 
full, rising from the base of the hackle, or from the cape, and very nearly 
covering the tail. The abdomen is more fully developed than that of the 
male Cochin. Head, comb, wattles and ear-lobes are much smaller than 
in the male, and are of the finest texture. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 11 lbs. Hen 9£ lbs. 

Cockerel 9 lbs. Pullet 1 lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Rather short, broad, deep, prominent over eyes; juncture with 
neck, well defined. 

Beak: Short, stout at base, curving to point. 

Eyes: Medium, large, mild in expression. 
* Comb: Single, of medium size, set firmly on head : stout at base, up- 
right, straight from front to rear, low in front, carefully rounded toward 
rear; serrations, moderately deep, dividing comb into five regular points, 
the middle one the highest ; free from wrinkles or side sprigs; fine in texture. 

Face : Of fine texture. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, rather long, well rounded at 
lower edges, thin and fine in texture. Ear-lobes, well defined, hanging 
about two-thirds as low as wattles: smooth. 

Neck: Short, full, well proportioned, beautifully arched from rear 

115 



116 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

of head to back; hackle, very long and abundant, flowing well over shoul- 
ders and cape. 

Wings: Carried well up, small and completely folded* fronts, em- 
bedded in plumage of breast; tips, nicely tucked under saddle plumage; 
wing-bows, smooth and exceedingly well rounded; loose or hanging flights 
very objectionable. 

Back: Apparently short, very broad, well rounded. 

Shoulders: Very broad; flat across under hackle. 

Saddle or Cushion: Rising from back at base of hackle or cape, 
very broad and round; plumage very profuse and long; saddle feathers, 
flowing over tips of wings and mingling with fluff and under-plumage of 
tail. 

Tail: Main tail, short, well spread at base, filled underneath with 
profusion of soft feathers and enveloped by coverts and lesser sickles, 
showing as little stiff feathers as possible; saddle and tail to have soft, 
round, bulky appearance. 

Breast: Carried forward, very full, well rounded, of great breadth 
and depth. 

Body and Fluff: Body, moderately long, broad, deep, well rounded 
from point of breast to abdomen; abdomen, well let down between the 
legs, broad and well rounded from breast bone to tail, depending more for 
fullness on length of feathers than on muscular development. Fluff, full, 
soft, abundant. 

Legs: Very strong, large, straight, set well apart. Thighs, of 
moderate length; the more long, soft, outstanding plumage, extending 
well down the shanks and covering knee or hock joints, the better, having 
the appearance of two great globes of feathers concealing the legs from 
view. Hocks, covered with flexible feathers, curving inward about the 
joints; free from vulture-like feathering. Shanks, short, stout in bone; 
plumage, long, beginning just below hocks and covering front and outer 
sides of shanks, from which it should be outstanding, the upper part 
growing out from under thigh plumage and continuing into foot feathering. 
There should be no marked break in the outlines between the plumage 
of these sections; they should merge naturally into each other and blend 
together. 

Toes: Straight, stout, well spread; middle and outer toes, completely 
feathered to ends. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Neat looking, fairly full in skull; fashioned after that of male, 
except finer in form. 

Beak: Short, stout at base, curving to point. 

Eyes: Of medium size, mild in expression. 

Comb: Single, small, straight and upright, nicely rounded to conform 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 117 

to shape of head; divided into five points; free from side sprigs and other 
imperfections; fine in texture. 

Face : Of fine texture. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, small, nicely rounded; fine in 
texture. Ear-lobes, oblong, fairly well defined; fine in texture. 

Neck: Short, nicely arched; hackle, very full, flowing well over 
shoulders and cape. 

Wings: Small, completely folded; fronts, embedded in plumage ot 
breast; tips, concealed between cushion and thigh plumage; wing- bows, 
smooth and exceedingly well rounded; loose or hanging flights very ob- 
jectionable. 

Back: Apparently short, very broad, well rounded. 

Shoulders: Broad; flat across under hackle. 

Cushion: Rising very full from back at base of hackle or cape, very 
large and round; plumage, profuse, flowing over tips of wings, well into 
thigh fluff and almost covering tail feathers. 

Tail: Short, broad at base, carried rather low; well filled underneath 
with profusion of soft feathers and nearly enveloped by tail-coverts, which 
help to form the cushion. 

Breast: Carried low in front, full, well rounded, of great breadth 
and depth. 

Body and Fluff: Body, of medium length, broad, deep, full and 
well rounded from point of breast to abdomen; abdomen, well let down 
between legs, full and round from breast bone to tail, with great length 
and fullness of feather. Fluff, full, soft, profuse. 

Legs: Moderately large, straight, strong, set well apart; thighs, of 
medium length, with great profusion of long, soft, outstanding fluff plum- 
age, completely hiding hocks or knee-joints, and covering shanks almost 
to feet; hocks should be covered with a profusion of soft, flexible feathers, 
curving inward about knee-joints: free from vulture-like feathers. Shanks, 
short, stout in bone, covered profusely with long plumage. 

Toes: Straight, well spread; middle and outer toes completely 
feathered to ends. 



118 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BUFF COCHINS. 

Disqualifications. 

Vulture-like hocks; plucked hocks; shanks other than yellow in color; 
bare middle toes; cocks not weighing nine pounds; hens not weighing seven 
pounds; cockerels not weighing seven pounds; pullets not weighing five 
pounds. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Rich yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes : Rich yellow. 

Plumage: Surface throughout, an even shade of rich, golden buff, 
free from shafting or mealy appearance; the head, neck, hackle, back, 
wing- bows and saddle richly glossed; under-color, a lighter shade, free 
from foreign color. Different shades of buff in two or more sections is a 
serious defect. A harmonious blending of buff in all sections is most 
desirable. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak : Rich yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes : Rich yellow. 

Plumage: Surface throughout an even shade of rich, golden buff, 
free from shafting or mealy appearance; the head and neck plumage show- 
ing luster of the same shade as the rest of the plumage; under-color, a 
lighter shade, free from foreign color. Different shades of buff in two or 
more sections is a serious defect. A harmonious blending of buff in all 
sections is most desirable. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 119 

PARTRIDGE COCHINS. 

D isqualifications. 

Positive white extending into web of tail feathers of cockerel; vulture- 
like hocks; plucked hocks, shanks other than yellow or dusky yellow, 
bare middle toes. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, bright red. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading to yellow at point. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Bright red, with a lustrous greenish-black stripe running 
nearly parallel with edges and extending through each feather, tapering 
to a point near its extremity; under-color, slate. 

Wings: Wing-bows, dark red; fronts, black; primaries, black, lower 
edges of web reddish-bay; secondaries, black, outside web reddish-bay 
terminating with greenish-black at end of each feather; coverts, lustrous 
greenish-black, forming well-defined bar of this color across wing when 
folded. 

"~ Back: Dark red; saddle, bright red, with a lustrous greenish-black 
stripe down the middle of each feather, same as in hackle; under-color, 
slate. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish-black, edged with 
bright red. 

*■ Breast: Lustrous black; under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, black. Fluff, black; under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; under-color, slate. Shank plumage, 
black or brownish-black. Shanks and toes, yellow or dusky yellow. Toe 
plumage, black or brownish-black. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, mahogany brown. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading into yellow at point. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Bright red. 

Neck: Bright red with a lustrous black stripe extending down the 
middle of each feather, running nearly parallel with edge of feather and 
tapering to a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Wing-bows, mahogany brown, penciled with black; pri- 
maries, black, with edging of mahogany brown on outer web: secondaries, 
inner web black, outer web mahogany brown, penciled with black, pen- 
ciling conforming to shape of feather. 



120 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BUFF COCHIN MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



121 




BUFF COCHIN FEMALE 



122 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




PARTRIDGE COCHIN MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



123 




PARTRIDGE COCHIN FEMALE 



124 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Ba.ck : Mahogany brown, distinctly penciled with black, the out- 
lines of penciling conforming to shape of feather; under-color, slate. 

Tail: Black, the two top feathers black penciled with mahogany 
brown on upper edge; coverts, mahogany brown penciled with black. 

Breast: Mahogany brown, distinctly penciled with black, the pen- 
ciling being of same character as that of back and extending to throat; 
under-color, slate. 

Body and Fluff: Body, mahogany brown, penciled with black. 
Fluff, mahogany brown; under-color, slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thigh, shank and toe plumage, mahogany brown 
penciled with black. Shanks and toes, yellow or dusky yellow. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 125 

WHITE COCHINS. 

Disqualifications. 

Feathers other than white in any part of plumage: \ulture-like hocks; 
plucked hoeks; shanks other than yellow; bare middle toes. (See general 
disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Legs and Toes: Rich yellow. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections pure white. 



BLACK COCHINS. 

Disqualifications. 

Feathers other than black in any part of plumage, except in foot or 
toe-feathering of standard size specimens, and in under-color of neck of 
bantam males; vulture-like hocks: plucked hocks; shanks other than black 
or yellow, or black gradually shading into yellow: bare middle toes; bot- 
toms of feet other than yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Black, shaded with yellow. 

Eyes: Black or dark brown. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Bright red. 

Legs and Toes: Black or yellow; black gradually shading into 
yellow preferred. Bottoms of feet, yellow. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish black throughout, under color, 
black. 



LANGSHANS. 

The general characteristics of Langshans are: Great proportionate 
depth of keel, with round contour of breast; fineness of bone for size of 
fowl; smooth white skin and pinkish- white flesh. The male develops 
great length of tail feathers, the sickles not uncommonly attaining a length 
of sixteen or seventeen inches. Its large, well-spread tail, carried erect, 
with abundant, close-lying saddle feathers, full-hackled neck and upright 
carriage, gives the effect of a short back. The surface of plumage through- 
out is close and smooth, being very brilliant with greenish reflections in the 
black, and silvery white in the white variety. 

The body, in both sexes of both varieties, should be evenly balanced 
on firm, straight legs with very little backward bend at the knee-joints. 
The legs are sinewy, the toes long and slender, free from coarseness, and 
the middle toes should be devoid of feathers. Height of the Langshan 
should be gained by depth of body and erectness of carriage, not from 
what may well be described as stiltiness of legs. Close-standing knee- 
joints, narrowness of body and the presence of foreign color are highly 
objectionable. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 9£lbs. Hen 7* lbs. 

Cockerel 8 lbs. Pullet 6j lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head : Of good size, rather broad. 

Beak: Stout at base, well curved. 

Eyes: Moderately large, round. 

Comb : Single, rather large, straight, upright ; evenly serrated, having 
five points, blade free from serrations; not conforming closely to neck; fine 
in texture. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, of moderate length, well rounded. 
Ear-lobes, oblong, well developed. 

Neck: Of good length, well arched; hackle, abundant, flowing well 
over shoulders. 

Wings: Of medium size, well folded, carried close to body. 

Back: Short, broad, flat at shoulders, rising from middle of back in 
a decidedly sharp concave sweep to tail; saddle feathers, abundant, flow- 
ing well over sides. 

126 



STAXDARD OF PERFECTION 127 

Tail: Large, full, well spread at base, carried at an angle of seventy 
degrees from the horizontal; sickles, long, extending decidedly beyond the 
tail; coverts, long — -the longer the better. 

Breast: Broad, round, deep. 

Body and Fluff: Body, broad and deep in front of thighs. Fluff, 
fairly developed, but not so abundant as to hide profile of hocks. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, strong, well covered with soft feathers; 
shanks, rather long, stout in bone, straight, set well apart, feathered down 
the outer sides. Toes, long, straight, slender; outer toes, feathered to the 
end; middle toes, free from feathers. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Smaller and narrower than that of male. 

Beak: Stout at base, well curved. 

Eyes: Moderately large, round. 

Comb: Single, smaller than that of male, straight and upright: 
evenly serrated, having five points; fine in texture. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, fairly developed, well rounded; 
fine in texture. Ear-lobes, fairly developed, oblong; fine in texture. 

Neck: Of good length, with full hackle. 

Wivgs: Of good size, well folded, carried close to body. 

Back: Of medium length, broad, flat at shoulders, rising from middle 
of back in a sharp concave sweep ending well up on tail. 

Tail: Well spread at base, carried at an angle of sixty-five degrees 
from the horizontal; carried well above and beyond the cushion and fur- 
nished with long coverts. 

Breast: Broad, round, deep. 

Body and Fluff: Body, short, broad, deep, well balanced. Fluff, 
well developed. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, strong, well covered with soft feathers; 
shanks, of good length, small-boned, set well apart, feathered down outer 
sides. Toes, long, straight, slender; outer toes, feathered to ends; middle 
toes, free from feathers. 



128 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BLACK LANGSHAN MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



129 




BLACK LANGSHAN FEMALE 



130 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BLACK LANGSHANS. 

Disqualifications. 

Comb other than single; one-half inch or more of white in any part of 
the plumage, except in foot or toe-feathering; yellow skin; bottoms of feet 
yellow in any part. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Dark horn, shading to pinkish tint near lower edge. 
Eyes: Black or dark brown. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 
Skin on Body: Pinkish- white. 

Legs and Toes: Bluish-black, showing pink between scales. Web 
and bottoms of feet, pinkish-white. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish-black; under-color, black. 

WHITE LANGSHANS. 

Disqualifications. 

Comb other than single; feathers other than white in any part of 
plumage; yellow skin; bottoms of feet yellow in any part. (See general 
disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Light slate- blue, shading to pinkish- white. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Legs and Toes: Slaty-blue, showing pink between scales. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections pure white. 



Class III. 



MEDITERRANEAN. 



Breeds 



Leghorns 



Minorcas . 



Spanish 

Blue Andalusians 
Anconas 



Varieties 
Single-Comb Brown 
Rose-Comb Brown 
Single-Comb White 
Rose-Comb White 
Single-Comb Buff 
Rose- Comb Buff 
Single-Comb Black 
I, Silver 

[ Single-Comb Black 
i Rose-Comb Black 
t Single-Comb White 
White-Faced Black 



SCALE OF POINTS. 



Symmetry 4 

Size 4 

Condition 4 

Comb 10 

Head — Shape 2, Color i 6 

Eyes — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Beak — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes — - Shape 4, Color (> 10 

Neck — - Shape 3, Color 4 7 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — Shape 5, Color 4 9 

Tail — Shape 6, Color 4 10 

Breast — Shape 5, Color 4 9 

Body and Fluff — Shape3, Color 2 5 

Legs and Toes — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Too 



131 



LEGHORNS. 

The Leghorn breed of fowls originated in Italy. It comprises a 
group characterized by rather small sizes, yellow legs, white ear-lobes and 
great activity and sprightliness. All varieties of Leghorns are hardy and 
prolific. The males are very alert and strikingly erect in carriage; the 
females are non-sitters, few of them showing a tendency to broodiness, 
being especially valuable, therefore, as egg producers. The most typical 
and useful specimens are those approaching nearest to standard require- 
ments in size and shape. Leghorns, being essentially a breed of com- 
paratively small size, of great alertness and of graceful curves, should be 
bred strictly on these lines. 

The eight varieties of Leghorns — the Single-Comb Brown, Rose- 
Comb Brown, Single-Comb White, Rose-Comb White, Single-Comb Buff, 
Rose-Comb Buff, Single-Comb Black and Single-Comb Silver — are iden- 
tical, except in color. The Single-Comb and Rose-Comb varieties are 
identical both in shape and color, combs excepted. Decidedly short 
backs, short shanks and low-set bodies are objectionable in the Leghorns. 
The wide range of plumage in the seven varieties of this breed enables all 
admirers of the Leghorn to indulge their fancy. Each variety has its 
points of beauty in plumage, some of which are exceedingly difficult to 
produce, thus presenting interesting problems for fanciers to master. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Moderate in length, fairly deep. 

Beak: Not too long, nicely curved. 

Eyes: Medium size and nearly round. 

Comb, Single: Medium size, straight and upright, firm and even on 
head, having five distinct points, deeply serrated and extending well over 
back of the head with no tendency to follow shape of neck; smooth, free 
from twists, folds and excrescences. 

Comb, Rose: Square in front, firm and even on head, tapering 
evenly from front to rear and terminating in a well -developed spike which 
extends horizontally well back of head; flat and covered with small, 
rounded points. 

Face: Smooth, fine in texture, round. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, long, thin, well rounded; smooth 
in texture; free from folds or wrinkles. Ear-lobes, a broadened almond- 
shape, smooth, of moderate size, fitting closely to head. 

132 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 133 

Neck: Long, nicely arched; hackle abundant, flowing well over the 
shoulders. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Of moderate length, somewhat rounded at shoulders, slightly 
sloping downward from shoulders to center of back, then rising in a grad- 
ually increasing concave sweep to tail. 

Tail: Large, Avell spread: main tail feathers carried at an angle of 
forty-five degrees from the horizontal; sickles, long, well curved; coverts, 
abundant. 

Breast: Well rounded: carried well forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, of moderate length and fairly deep; straight 
from front to rear. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs and shanks, moderately long and slender. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Moderate in length and fairly deep, well rounded. 

Beak: .Not too long, nicely curved. 

Eyes: Medium in size and nearly round. 

Comb, Single: Medium in size, deeply serrated, having five distinct 
points, the front portion of comb and first point to stand erect and the 
remainder of comb drooping gradually to one side; fine in texture, free 
from folds or wrinkles. .. 

Comb, Rose: Small, square in front, firm and even on head, taper- 
ing evenly from front to rear and terminating in a well developed spike, 
which extends horizontally back of head; flat and covered with very small, 
rounded points. 

Face: Smooth, fine in texture, nearly round. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of moderate size, thin, well 
rounded. Ear-lobes, oval in shape, smooth, thin, free from folds or 
wrinkles, fitting closely to the head. 

Neck: Long, slender and gracefully arched. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Of moderate length, somewhat rounded, with a slight slope 
downward from shoulders to center of back, and then rising in a concave 
incline to the tail. 

Tail: Long, full, well spread, carried at an angle of forty degrees 
from the horizontal. 

Breast: Well rounded, carried well forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, moderately long, fairly deep, straight from 
front to rear. Fluff, rather short, more developed than in male. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs and shanks moderately long, slender. 
Toes straight. 



134 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

WHITE LEGHORNS. 

(Single and Rose Comb.) 

Disqualifications. 

Red covering more than one-half the surface of ear-lobes in cockerels 
and pullets; feathers other than white in any part of plumage; shanks 
other than yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: Yellow. 
Eyes: Reddish-bay. 
Comb, Face and Wattles : Bright red. 
Ear- Lobes: White. 

Shanks and Toes: Rich yellow, red showing on outside back of 
scales, not a defect in males. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections pure white. 

BROWN LEGHORNS. 

(Single and Rose Comb.) 

Disqualifications . 

Red covering more than one-half of surface of ear-lobes in cock- 
erels and pullets; white in any part of plumage, except in under-color of 
hackle and saddle of both sexes, any age, also except one inch or less at 
base of sickles and one-half inch or less at base of primaries of cock birds 
(white showing in the foregoing excepted sections is to be cut one and one- 
half points in each section where found); shanks other than yellow. 
(See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, dark red. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White or creamy white. 

Neck: Rich, brilliant red, with a lustrous greenish-black stripe 
running nearlv parallel with edges of and extending through each feather 
and tapering to a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Bows, rich, brilliant red; wing-fronts, black: primaries, 
black, lower web edged with brown; secondaries, black, edge of lower 
web a rich brown of sufficient width to secure a wing-bay of same color; 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 135 

coverts, lustrous greenish-black, forming a well-defined wing-bar when 
wing is folded. 

Back and Saddle: Back, rich, brilliant red; saddle feathers, rich, 
brilliant red with a lustrous greenish-black stripe running through the 
middle of each feather, same as in hackle. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish-black. 

Breast: Lustrous black. 

Body and Fluff: Black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; shanks, yellow. Toes, yellow or 
dusky yellow. 

Under-Color: Dark slate. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, golden yellow, tinged with dark brown. 

Beak: Horn. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White or creamy-white. 

Neck: Golden yellow, with broad, black stripe extending down 
middle of each feather and tapering to a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Bows, same color as described for back; primaries, slaty- 
brown, the outer web slightly edged with brown; secondaries, brown, the 
outer web finely stippled with lighter brown; coverts, same color as de- 
scribed for back. 

Back: Web of feathers, on surface, light brown, finely stippled with 
a darker brown, the lighter shade predominating. More importance is 
attached to fineness, sharp definition of stippling, evenness of color and 
freedom from shafting than to the particular shade of color, but it is im- 
portant that the effect produced be that of a soft, even brown that is not 
suggestive of gray, as one extreme to be avoided — or of red, as the other; 
the parts of the feathers not exposed, to be brown shading into slate in 
fluff. 

Tail: Dull black, except the two highest main tail feathers which 
are stippled with lighter brown; coverts, same as for back. 

Breast: Rich salmon, shading off lighter under the body; free from 
shafting. 

Body and Fluff: Body, light brown stippled a darker brown, free 
from shafting. Fluff, slate, plentifully tinged with brown. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, slate, plentifully tinged with brown; shanks, 
yellow. Toes, yellow or dusky yellow. 



136 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SINGLE-COMB BROWN LEGHORN MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



137 




SINGLE-COMB BROWN LEGHORN FEMALE 



138 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SINGLE-COMB WHITE LEGHORN MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



1S9 




SINGLE-COMB WHITE LEGHORN FEMALE 



140 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




ROSE-COMB WHITE LEGHORN MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



141 




ROSE-COMB WHITE LEGHORN FEMALE 



142 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BUFF LEGHORNS. 

(Single and Rose Comb.) 

Disqualifications. 

Red covering more than one-half the surface of ear-lobes in cockerels 
and pullets; shanks other than yellow. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Rich yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White or creamy white. 

Legs and Toes : Rich yellow, red showing at outside, back of scales, 
not a defect. 

Plumage: Surface throughout an even shade of rich, golden buff, free 
from shafting or mealy appearance; the head, neck, hackle, back, wing- 
bow and saddle richly glossed; under-color, a lighter shade, free from 
foreign color. Different shades of buff in two or more sections is a serious 
defect. A harmonious blending of buff in all sections is most desirable. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Rich yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White or creamy white. 

Legs and Toes: Rich yellow. 

Plumage: Surface throughout an even shade of rich, golden buff, 
free from shafting or mealy appearance; the head and neck plumage show- 
ing a luster of the same shade as the rest of the plumage; under-color, 
lighter shade, free from foreign color. Different shades of buff in two 
or more sections is a serious defect. A harmonious blending of buff in all 
sections is most desirable. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 143 

BLACK LEGHORNS. 

D isq ualifications. 

Red covering more than one-half the surface of ear-lobes in cockerels 
and pullets; feathers other than black in any part of plumage; shanks other 
than yellow or yellowish-black. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Yellow, or yellowish- black. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White. 

Legs and Toes: Yellow, or yellowish-black. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish- black; under-color, black. 



144 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 






%> 



ji 




SINGLE-COMB BUFF LEGHORN MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



14.5 




SINGLE-COMB BUFF LEGHORN FEMALE 



146 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

SILVER LEGHORNS. 

Disqualifications. 

Red covering more than one-half the surface of ear-lobes in cockerels 
and pullets; red in any part of the plumage; shanks other than yellow. 
(See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery white. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear-Lobes: White. 

Neck: Plumage, other than hackle, rich, glossy black; hackle, silvery 
white with narrow black stripe extending down middle of each lower 
hackle feather, terminating near extremity of feather. 

Wings: Shoulders, black; wing-fronts, black; wing-bows, silvery 
white; wing-coverts, black, forming a distinct bar across the wing; pri- 
maries, black, except the lower feathers, the outer edges of which should 
be silvery white; secondaries, part of outer web of feathers in wing-bay, 
white, remainder of feathers black. 

Back: Silvery white. 

Cape: Black. 

Saddle Feathers: Silvery white. 

Tail: Black; sickles, lustrous black; upper coverts, lustrous black; 
lower coverts, silvery white. 

Breast: Black. 

Body and Fluff: Black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; shanks, yellow. Toes, yellow. 

Under-Color: Gray. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery gray. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face and Wattles : Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White. 

Neck: Plumage, other than hackle, light salmon; hackle, silvery gray, 
with narrow black stripe extending down middle of each feather, terminat- 
ing near extremity of feather. 

Wings: Bows, light gray, free from dark marks or bars; primaries 
and secondaries, upper web, gray, lower web, slaty-gray; coverts, light 
gray, free from dark marks or red. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 147 

Back: Light gray, free from dark marks or bars. 

Tail: Black, except the two upper feathers, which are light gray: 
coverts, gray. 

Breast: Light salmon, shading to gray toward sides. 

Body and Fluff: Body, light ashy-gray, free from dark marks or 
bars. Fluff, light ashy-gray. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, light gray; shanks and toes, yellow. 

Under-Color: Gray. 



MINORCAS. 

Minorcas are the largest of the Mediterranean class. Formerly they 
were called Red-Faced Black Spanish. They are distinguished by long 
bodies, very large combs, long, full wattles, large, white ear-lobes, dark- 
colored legs and pinkish-white or flesh-colored skin. The Minorca head 
is carried rather high; the back is long and sloping; the tail is spread some- 
what and only moderately elevated, being carried at an angle of forty 
degrees from the horizontal. Their legs are firm, muscular and set 
squarely under the long, powerful-looking bodies. At the shoulders the 
back has the appearance of being rather flat. The lines of breast and 
body are well rounded, and the general bearing of the birds, male and 
female, is graceful, and commanding for their size. The Minorca plum- 
age is compact, smooth on surface, fitting closely to the body in all sections. 
The beetle-green, brilliant black surface color of the Black variety should 
be free from purple, and the plumage of the White variety should be free 
from foreign color. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Single Comb Black. 

Cock 9 lbs. Hen 7$ lbs. 

Cockerel 7j lbs. Pullet 6j lbs. 

Single Comb White and Rose Comb Black. 

Cock 8 lbs. Hen 6j lbs. 

Cockerel 6j lbs. Pullet &\ lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head : Moderately long, wide, deep. 

Beak: Of good length, stout, well curved. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb, Single: Moderately large, straight and upright, firm and even 
on head; smooth; deeply and evenly serrated, having six regular and dis- 
tinct points, the middle points the longest and same in length as width of 
blade; front not to extend beyond point half way between nostrils and 
point of beak, but extending well over back of head, with a tendency to 
follow shape of neck. 

Comb, Rose: Moderately large, square in front, firm and even on 
head, tapering evenly from front to rear, terminating in a well-developed 
spike which extends well back of head and inclines slightly below the 
horizontal; top, flat, and covered with small, rounded points. 

148 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 149 

Face: Full and smooth. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Wattles, long, large, thin, free from folds 
and wrinkles, smooth and fine in texture. Ear-lobes, large, almond- 
shaped, smooth, thin, free from folds and wrinkles, fitting closely to head. 

Neck: Rather long, arched; hackle, abundant, flowing well over 
shoulders. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Long, flat at shoulders, broad and rounded at sides, sloping 
decidedly downward to tail; saddle feathers, long. 

Tail: Large and full, main tail feathers carried at an angle of forty 
degrees from the horizontal; sickles, large, long, well curved; coverts, 
abundant. 

Breast: Deep, well rounded and prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, broad, deep, straight from front to 
rear. Fluff, rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, stout; shanks long, 
straight and strong, set well apart. Toes, straight. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head : Moderately long, wide, deep. 

Beak: Of good length, stout, well curved. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb, Single: Moderately large, forming one loop over beak, then 
drooping down opposite side of head; deeply and evenly serrated, with six 
regular and distinct points. 

Comb, Rose: Moderately large, square in front, firm and even on 
head, tapering evenly from front to rear, terminating in a well-developed 
spike, which extends back of head and inclines slightly below the hori- 
zontal; top, flat, and covered with small, rounded points. 

Face: Full and smooth. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, long, large, thin, free from 
folds and wrinkles, smooth, and fine in texture. Ear-lobes, large, almond- 
shaped, smooth, thin, free from folds and wrinkles, fitting closely to head. 

Neck: Rather long, slightly arched. 

Wixgs: Large, well folded. 

Back: Long, flat at shoulders, broad, and rounded at sides; sloping 
decidedly downward to tail. 

Tail: Long, full, and carried at an angle of forty degrees from the 
horizontal. 

Breast: Deep, well rounded, prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, broad, deep, straight from front to 
rear. Fluff, rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, stout; shanks, long, 
straight and strong, set well apart. Toes, straight. 



150 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SINGLE-COMB BLACK MINORCA MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



151 




SINGLE-COMB BLACK MINORCA FEMALE 



152 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BLACK MINORCAS. 

Disqualifications. 

Red in ear-lobes covering one-third or more of surface; red in any 
part of the plumage; pure white in any part of plumage extending more 
than one-half an inch, or two or more feathers tipped or edged with positive 
white; shanks other than dark slate or nearly black, except the natural 
fading from age. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: Black. 
Eyes: Dark brown. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 
Ear-Lobes: White. 
Legs and Toes : Black or dark slate. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish-black throughout. Under- 
color, black or dark slate. 

WHITE MINORCAS. 

Disqualifications. 

Red in ear-lobes, covering one-third or more of the surface; feathers 
other than white in any part of plumage; shanks other than white or 
pinkish-white. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Pinkish- white. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red 

Ear-Lobes: White. 

Shanks and Toes: Pinkish- white. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



WHITE-FACED BLACK SPANISH. 

The White-Faced Black Spanish probably represent the oldest 
pure-bred fowl in the Mediterranean class. The development of the 
long, pendulous white face, free from wrinkles, has been the aim of fanciers 
of this valuable and attractive breed. In general appearance the Black 
Spanish are graceful and stylish. They lay an extra large, handsome, 
white-shelled egg. The rich, glossy, black plumage, the rather large, five- 
pointed comb and the long, pendulous white face give this early claimant 
to popular favor a distinct individuality among standard-bred fowl. 

Disq tialificat ions. 
Decided red in the face, except directly above the eyes: face so puffy 
as to obstruct the sight; foreign color in any part of plumage; shanks 
other than blue or dark leaden-blue, except the natural fading from age. 
(See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 8 lbs. Hen 6h lbs. 

Cockerel 6j lbs. Pullet oh lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Long, broad, deep. 

Beak: Rather long, stout. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb: Single, of medium size, straight and upright, firm and even 
on head, rising from the base of beak and extending in an arched form 
beyond back of head; deeply and evenly serrated, having five points; very 
fine in texture. 

Face: Long, deep, smooth, free from wrinkles, rising well over eyes 
in an arched form and not obstructing sight, extending toward back of 
head and to base of beak, covering the cheeks and joining the wattles and 
ear-lobes; the greater the extent of surface the better. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, smooth, very long, thin, ribbon- 
like. Ear-lobes, very large, free from folds and wrinkles, meeting in front, 
extending well backward on each side of neck, hanging very low and 
regularly rounded on lower edges: very smooth. 

Neck: Long, well arched; hackle, abundant, flowing well over 
shoulders. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back; Long, broad and straight, sloping downward to saddle, 
which rises in a short concave sweep to tail. 

153 



154 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




WHITE-FACED BLACK SPANISH MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



155 




WHITE-FACED BLACK SPANISH FEMALE 



156 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Tail: Large and full; main tail feathers carried at an angle of forty- 
five degrees from the horizontal; sickles, large, long and well curved; 
coverts, abundant. 

Breast: Deep, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, moderately wide, straight from front 
to rear. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, moderate size, long; shanks, long. Toes, 
straight. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Long, broad, deep. 

Beak: Rather long, stout. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb: Single, moderately large, deeply serrated, having five points, 
drooping to one side; very fine in texture. 

Face: Long, deep, smooth, free from wrinkles, rising well over eyes 
in arched form and not obstructing sight, extending toward back of head 
and to base of beak, covering the cheeks and joining wattles and ear- 
lobes; the greater the extent of surface the better. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, smooth, very long, thin, ribbon- 
like. Ear-lobes, very large, free from folds and wrinkles, meeting in front, 
extending well backward on each side of neck, hanging very low and 
regularly rounded on lower edges, very smooth. 

Neck: Long, well arched. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Long, broad and straight, sloping downward to middle of 
back, which rises in a short concave sweep to tail. 

Tail: Large, carried at an angle of forty-five degrees from the hori- 
zontal; the two top main tail-feathers slightly curved, especially in pullets. 

Breast: Deep, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, moderately wide, straight from front 
to rear. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, moderately long; shanks, long. Toes, 
straight. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Black. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Comb : Bright red. 

Face: Pure white. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, males, bright red, except inside 
of upper part, which is white; females, bright red. Ear-lobes, pure white. 

Legs and Toes: Dark leaden-blue, or black. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish-black, throughout; under- 
color, dark slate. 



BLUE ANDALUSIANS. 

The Andalusian has the distinction, unique among domestic fowl, 
of wearing the national colors — red, white and blue — its face and eves 
being red, its ear-lobes white and its plumage blue. The origin of this 
breed is not clearly established, but it seems to have been well known in 
Great Britain as early as the eighteenth century, though its introduction 
into the United States and Canada is of more recent date. Judging by 
its name, it probably came from Andalusia, a province in southern Spain. 
Whether the White and Black Minoreas are off-shoots from the Anda- 
lusians, or whether the Andalusians originated from a blending of White 
and Black Minoreas, coming originally from Spain, is a mooted question, 
but it is noticeable that anatomically the Andalusians and Minoreas are 
quite similar. 

The typical Andalusian of the Standard must be pre-eminently a 
symmetrical, graceful, compact fowl, of medium size, without coarseness 
of structure or clumsiness of carriage. The dark lacing of the plumage 
should stand out clearly and sharply. It should not merge into, nor blend 
with the ground-color of the feather. The desired contrast is pronounced 
and well defined. If the ground-color is quite dark, the contrast cannot 
be as sharp as when the ground-color of the feather is of the "clear, even, 
medium " shade required by the Standard. Andalusians that approach 
closely to Standard requirements are peculiarly attractive, in fact are 
beautiful examples of the art of poultry culture. 

Disqualifications. 

Red in ear-lobes covering one-half or more of the surface; red or posi- 
tive white in color of plumage; shanks other than blue or slaty-blue, except 
the natural fading from age. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 6 lbs. Hen 5 lbs. 

Cockerel 5 lbs. Pullet 4 lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Moderately long and deep. 
Beak : Moderate length. 
Eyes: Large, oval. 

157 



158 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Comb, Single: Rather large, straight and upright, firm and even on 
head; evenly serrated, having five points. 

Face: Full and smooth. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, long, thin, smooth. Ear-lobes, 
almond shape. 

Neck: Rather long, arched, with hackle flowing well over shoulders. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Of moderate length, sloping downward to saddle which rises 
with a short, concave sweep to tail ; saddle feathers, long. 

Tail: Large, full; main tail feathers carried at an angle of forty-five 
degrees from the horizontal. Sickles, large, even, well curved; coverts, 
abundant. 

Breast: Broad, deep and well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, deep, well rounded, straight from front to 
rear. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of moderate size, long; shanks, long. 
Toes, straight. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Moderately long, deep. 

Beak: Moderate length. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb, Single: Rather large, rising slightly in front, drooping to one 
side; evenly serrated, having five distinct points. 

Face: Full, smooth. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, moderately long, thin, well 
rounded. Ear-lobes, almond-shaped. 

Neck: Long, arched. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Of moderate length, descending toward tail; saddle rising 
with slight concave sweep to tail. 

Tail: Long, carried at an angle of forty-five degrees from the hori- 
zontal, fairly well spread. 

Breast: Broad, deep and well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, deep, well rounded, straight from front to 
rear. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, slender, rather long; shanks, long, slender. 
Toes, straight. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head : Plumage, dark slaty-blue. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear-Lobes: White. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 159 

Neck: Lustrous bluish-black. 

Wings: Wing-bows, lustrous bluish-black; primaries, a clear, even, 
medium shade of slaty-blue; secondaries, inner web a clear, even shade 
of slaty-blue, outer web slaty-blue, each feather having a well-defined 
lacing of a darker shade; wing-coverts, a clear, even, medium shade of 
slaty-blue, having a well-defined lacing of a darker shade. 

Back: Lustrous bluish-black. 

Tail: Sickles, lustrous bluish-black; tail-coverts, lustrous bluish- 
black; main tail feathers, a clear, even slaty-blue, with a well-defined lacing 
of bluish-black. 

Breast: A clear, even, medium shade of slaty-blue, each feather 
having a well-defined lacing of a darker shade. 

Body and Fluff: Body, a clear, even, medium shade of slaty-blue, 
each feather having a well defined lacing of a darker shade. Fluff, slaty- 
blue. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, a clear, even shade of slaty-blue; shanks 
and toes, leaden-blue. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, slaty-blue. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear-Lobes: White. 

Neck: Slaty- blue, laced with a darker shade. 

Wings: Primaries, a clear, even, medium shade of slaty-blue; re- 
mainder of the wing an even shade of slaty-blue, darker than that of pri- 
maries; feathers in all sections, except primaries, laced with a darker shade. 

Back: Slaty-blue, each feather having a well-defined lacing of a 
darker shade. 

Tail: Slaty-blue, laced with a darker shade. 

Breast: Slaty-blue, each feather having a well-defined lacing of a 
darker shade. 

Body and Fluff: Body, slaty-blue, each feather having a well- 
defined lacing of a darker shade. Fluff, slaty-blue. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, slaty-blue; shanks and toes, leaden-blue. 



ANCONAS. 

Disqualifications. 

Red in ear-lobes covering more than one- half of surface; red in any 
part of plumage; shanks other than yellow or yellow mottled with black. 
(See general disqualifications.) 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Moderate in length, fairly deep. 

Beak: Not too long, nicely curved. 

Eyes: Medium size and nearly round. 

Comb: Single, medium size, straight and upright, firm and even on 
head; having five distinct points, deeply serrated and extending well over 
back of head with no tendency to follow shape of neck; smooth, free from 
twists, folds and excrescences. 

Face: Smooth, fine in texture, nearly round. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, long, thin, well rounded, smooth 
in texture, free from folds or wrinkles. Ear-lobes, a broadened almond- 
shape, of moderate size, smooth, fitting closely to head. 

Neck: Long, nicely arched; hackle, abundant, flowing well over 
shoulders. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Of moderate length, somewhat rounded at shoulders, slightly 
sloping downward from shoulders to center of back, then rising in a grad- 
ually increasing concave sweep to tail. 

Tail: Large, well spread; main tail feathers carried at an angle of 
forty-five degrees from the horizontal; sickles, long, well curved; coverts, 
abundant. 

Breast: Well rounded, carried well forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, of moderate length, fairly deep, straight 
from front to rear. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs and shanks moderately long and slender. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Moderate in length, fairly deep. 
Beak: Not too long, nicely curved. 
Eyes: Medium in size and nearly round. 

160 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 101 

Comb: Single, medium in size, deeply serrated, having five distinct 
points, the front portion of comb and first point to stand erect, the re- 
mainder of comb drooping gradually to one side; fine in texture, free from 
folds or wrinkles. 

Face: Smooth, fine in texture, well rounded. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, of moderate size, thin, well 
rounded. Ear-lobes, oval in shape, smooth, thin, free from folds or 
wrinkles, fitting closely to the head. 

Neck: Long, slender and gracefully arched. 

Wings: Large and well folded. 

Back: Of moderate length, somewhat rounded, with a slight slope 
downward from shoulders to center of back, and then rising in a concave 
incline to tail. 

Tail: Long, full, and well spread, carried at an angle of forty degrees 
from the horizontal. 

Breast: Well rounded, carried well forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, moderately long, fairly deep, straight from 
front to rear. Fluff, rather short, more developed than in male. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs and shanks, moderately long, slender. 
Toes, straight. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, black. 

Beak: Yellow, upper mandible shaded with black. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 
*Ear- Lobes: White. 

Neck: Lustrous greenish- black; about one feather in five tipped 
with white. 

Wings: Bows, lustrous greenish-black, one feather in five tipped 
with white; primaries, black, edged with white; secondaries, black, ending 
with a white tip; coverts, lustrous greenish-black, many ending in a white 
spangle. 

—'♦Back: Lustrous greenish-black; saddle, lustrous greenish-black, 
about one feather in five tipped with white. 

Tail: Main tail feathers black, many tipped with white; sickles and 
coverts, lustrous greenish-black, ending with white tips. 

Breast: Lustrous black, about one feather in five tipped with a 
white spangle. 

Body and Fluff: Body, lustrous black, about one feather in five 
tipped with a white spangle. Fluff, black, slightly tinged with white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black somewhat tipped with white; under- 
color, black or slate. Shanks and toes, yellow or yellow mottled with 
black. 



162 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, black. 

Beak: Yellow, upper mandible shaded with black. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White. 

Neck: Lustrous black, about one feather in five tipped with white. 

Wings: Bows, lustrous black, one feather in five ending in a white 
spangle; primaries, black edged with white; secondaries, black, ending 
with white tips; coverts, lustrous black, about one feather in five ending 
with a white spangle. 

- Back: Lustrous black, about one feather in five ending with a white 
spangle. 

Tail: Black, many feathers ending with a white tip; coverts, black, 
about one feather in five ending in a white spangle. 

-Breast: Lustrous black, about one feather in five ending with a 
white spangle. 

Body and Fluff: Body, black, about one feather in five ending in a 
white spangle. Fluff, black, slightly tinged with white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black, somewhat tipped with white. 
Shanks and toes, yellow or yellow mottled with black. 



Class IV. 

ENGLISH. 

Breeds Varieties 

[ White 
Dorkings I Silver-Gray 

[ Colored 
Redcaps , Rose-Comb 

f Single-Comb Buff 
Orpingtons \ Single-Comb Black 

( Single-Comb White 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR THE ENGLISH CLASS. 

Symmetry 4 

Weight 6 

Condition. 4 

Comb 8 

Head — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Beak — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Eyes — - Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes — Shape 2, Color 3 5 

Neck — ■ Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — Shape 5, Color 5 10 

Tail — Shape 5, Color 4 9 

Breast — Shape 5, Color 5 10 

BodyandFluff — Shape5, Color3 8 

Legs and Toes — Shape 5, Color 3 8 

100 



Ifif? 



DORKINGS. 

The Dorkings are among the oldest breeds of domestic fowl in ex- 
istence. The male is large, with a broad, low-set body that is rectangular 
in shape, as viewed from the side, possessing a long, deep keel and short 
legs, which give the bird a solid and compact appearance. The female 
closely resembles the male, except in feathering, though not as large in 
size and being a trifle shorter in legs, with a lower-set keel. The skin and 
flesh of the Dorkings are white. They differ from most other breeds in 
having five toes. (See Fig. 35.) 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Rather large. 

Beak: Of medium length, stout, well curved. 

Eyes: Prominent. 

Comb: Silver-Gray and Colored Dorkings, single, rather large, 
straight and upright; evenly serrated, having six well-defined points, the 
front and rear points shorter than the other four. White Dorkings, rose, 
square in front, firm and even on head, terminating in a well-defined spike; 
top, comparatively flat and covered with small, rounded points. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, rather large, well rounded at 
lower end. Ear-lobes, of medium size, about one-half the length of 
wattles. 

Neck: Rather short, arched; hackle, full and abundant, flowing well 
over shoulders, making it appear very broad, tapering to head. 

Wings : Large, well folded against body, not drooping. 

Back: Broad, long, straight, declining to tail; saddle feathers, abun- 
dant. 

Tail: Large, full, somewhat expanded, carried at an angle of forty 
degrees from the horizontal; sickles and coverts, abundant, well curved. 

Breast: Broad, deep, full, well rounded, carried forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, broad, deep, keel long. Fluff, smooth 
in surface, moderately developed. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, large, short, well meated, set well apart: 
shanks, short, stout, round in bone. Toes, five upon each foot, front and 
fifth toes moderately long and smooth; fifth toe well separated from the 
fourth and directly above it, rising on a slight incline from base to point. 
Shanks below hock, and toes free from feathers and down. 

164 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 165 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Of medium size. 

Beak: Of medium length, stout, well curved. 

Eyes: Prominent. 

Comb: Silver-Gray and Colored Dorkings, single, similar to that 
of male, but much smaller, and falling over to one side. White Dorkings, 
rose, similar to that of male, but much smaller. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, uniform, rather broad, well 
rounded. Ear-lobes, of medium size. 

Neck: Rather short, arched; hackle, full and abundant, flowing over 
shoulders, tapering to head. 

Wings: Large, well folded against body. 

Back: Broad, long, straight, declining slightly to tail. 

Tail: Well developed: main feathers broad, close together, carried 
at an angle of forty degrees from the horizontal. 

Breast: Broad, deep, well rounded, carried forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, broad, deep, with long, low-set keel. 
Fluff, smooth in surface, moderately developed. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, large, short, well meated; shanks, short, 
stout, round in bone. Toes, five upon each foot, front and fifth toes, 
moderately long and smooth, fifth toe, well separated from fourth and 
directly over it and rising on a slight incline from base to point. Shanks 
below hock, and toes, free from feathers and down. 

WHITE DORKINGS. 

D isqu alifica t ion s. 

Feathers other than white in any part of plumage; shanks other than 
white or flesh color; absence of fifth toe. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 7h lbs. Hen 6 lbs. 

Cockerel 6h lbs. Pullet 5 lbs 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: White. 
Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Red. 
Legs and Toes: White. 
Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



166 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

SILVER-GRAY DORKINGS. 

Disqualifications. 

Shanks other than white or flesh color; absence of fifth toe. (See 
general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 8 lbs. Hen 6^ lbs. 

Cockerel 7 lbs. Pullet 5j lbs. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery white. 

Beak: White, streaked with horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Hackle, silvery white; a narrow gray stripe extending down 
middle of each feather of lower hackle is allowable. 

Wings: Bows, silvery white; primaries, quills black, black on upper 
web, white on lower web; secondaries, quills black, black on upper web, 
white on lower web, with a black spot at end of each feather; coverts, 
lustrous greenish-black, forming a wide bar across wing. 

Back and Saddle: Silvery white. 

Cape: Black. 

Tail: Sickles, greenish-black; a little white at base of main tail in 
cock is allowable; coverts, rich, lustrous black, the lesser coverts having 
an edging of white. 

Breast : Lustrous black. 

Body and Fluff: Black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; shanks and toes, white. 

Under-Color: Slate. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery white. 

Beak: White, streaked with horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck : Hackle, silvery white, with a fine, black stripe extending down 
middle of each feather, tapering to a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Bows, silvery white, finely stippled with ashy-gray; pri- 
maries, upper web dark slate, lower web slaty-gray; secondaries, upper web 
dark slate, lower web slaty-gray; coverts, silvery white stippled with ashy- 
gray. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 167 

■ Back: Gray, formed of silvery white finely stippled with ashy-gray. 

Tail: Black, penciled with gray on outside and dark slate on inside. 
' Breast: Salmon-red, shading off to ashy-gray at sides. 

Body and Fluff: Body, silvery or slaty-gray, free from dark marks 
across feathers; under part of body, gray. Fluff, gray. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, ashy-gray; shanks and toes, white. 

Under-Color: Slate. 

COLORED DORKINGS. 

Disqualifications-. 

Shanks other than white or flesh color; absence of fifth toe. (See 
general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock !) lbs. Hen 7 lbs. 

Cockerel 8 lbs. Pullet 6 lbs. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, very light gray. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Light straw color with a wide, black stripe extending down 
middle of each feather. 

Wings: Bows, light straw; primaries, black or dark slate; second- 
aries, upper web black, lower web white; coverts, lustrous greenish-black, 
forming a wide bar across wing. 

Back: Cape, black and white; saddle feathers, light straw color, 
with a wide, black stripe extending down middle of each feather. 

Tail: Black; sickles, greenish-black; coverts, lustrous black. 

Breast: Lustrous black. 

Body and Fluff: Black. 
- Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; shanks and toes, white. 

Under-Color: Dark slate. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head : Plumage, black or nearly black. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 



168 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SILVER-GRAY DORKING MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



169 




SILVER-GRAY DORKING FEMALE 



170 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Neck : Black, with a narrow edging of gray on front feathers, the gray 
extending to sides. 

Wings: Bows, dark gray laced with black; primaries, dark brown; 
secondaries, upper web, black, lower web, dark gray; coverts, dark gray 
laced with black; shafts of feathers, brown. 

Back: Very dark gray marked with black; shafts of feathers, light 
bay. 

Tail: Dark brown penciled with gray on outside and black on inside. 

Breast: Dark salmon edged with black; shafts of feathers, light bay. 

Body and Fluff: Body, dark brown or black, slightly mixed with 
gray. Fluff, dull black or dark gray. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, dark gray and brown. Shanks and toes, 
white. 

Under-Color : Dark slate. 



REDCAPS. 

This is an old variety, well known to fanciers, having many practical 
and useful qualities. The male should be of good size, with large, rose 
comb, well-flowing hackle, a straight back of medium length, large, well- 
expanded tail and the full, well-rounded breast characteristic of this 
variety. The female should be of good size, with even, well-balanced, 
rose comb, round, well-formed breast, long, well-shaped back and deep, 
long body. The tail should be of good size and well expanded, giving the 
bird a well-balanced appearance. 

D disqualifications . 

Solid white ear-lobes; comb other than rose; foreign-colored feathers 
indicating impurity, except white in primaries; mottled breast in male; 
shanks other than slate or leaden-blue in color, except the natural fading 
from age. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 1\ lbs. Hen 6 lbs. 

Cockerel 6 lbs. Pullet 5 lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 
Head: Short, deep. 

Beak: Of medium size, stout at base, well curved. 
Eyes: Full. 
** Comb: Rose, large, not overhanging eyes, square in front, free from 
hollow in center, top covered with small points, uniform on each side, firm 
and even on head without inclining to one side, terminating at rear in a 
well-developed and straight spike. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Of medium size. 

Neck: Rather long, with full hackle flowing well over shoulders. 
Wings: Large, well folded against body. 

Back: Of medium length, sloping straight to tail; saddle feathers, 
long and sweeping. 

\ Tail: Full, well expanded, carried at an angle of fifty degrees from 
the horizontal; sickles, long, well curved; coverts, abundant. 
Breast: Broad, deep, prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, rounded, broadest in front and taper- 
ing to rear. Fluff, rather short. 

171 



172 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, well developed; shanks, 
rather long. Toes, straight, well spread. Shanks below hocks, and toes, 
free from feathers and down, 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head : Short, deep. 

Beak: Of medium size, stout at base, well curved. 

Eyes: Full. 

Comb: Similar to that of male, but smaller. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of medium size, well rounded. 
Ear-lobes, of medium size. 

Neck: Rather long, with full hackle. 

Wings: Large, well folded against body. 

Back: Long, straight, sloping slightly to tail. 

Tail: Long, full, well expanded, carried at an angle of forty-five 
degrees from the horizontal. 

Breast: Broad, prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, rounded, deep. Fluff, rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, well developed; shanks, 
of medium length. Toes, straight, well spread. Shanks below hocks, 
and toes, free from feathers and down. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head : Plumage, rich, dark red. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Blue-black, each feather edged with red, the entire hackle 
shading off to black at base. 

Wings: Bows, deep, mahogany- red; primaries, dull black; second- 
aries, upper web black, lower web black with a broad edging of brown, 
each feather ending with a bluish-black spangle, shaped like a half moon; 
coverts, rich, deep brown, each feather ending with a black spangle, 
shaped like a half moon, forming double black bars across wings. 

Back: Rich red and black; saddle feathers, rich, dark red, with a 
bluish-black stripe extending down middle of each feather. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts greenish-black. 

Breast: Lustrous black. 

Body and Fluff: Black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; shanks and toes, slate or leaden- 
blue. 

Under-Color: Dark leaden-blue. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 173 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, brown. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Black, each feather laced with golden bay. 

Wings: Bows, rich brown, each feather ending with a bluish-black 
spangle, shaped like a half moon; primaries, dull black, with a narrow 
edging of brown on lower web; secondaries, black, lower web with a broad 
edging of brown, each feather ending with a bluish-black spangle, shaped 
like a half moon; coverts, similar to bows. 

Back: Rich brown, each feather ending with a bluish-black spangle, 
shaped like a half moon. 

Tail: Black; coverts, brown, each feather ending with a bluish-black 
spangle, shaped like a half moon. 

Breast: Rich brown, each feather ending with a bluish-black 
spangle, shaped like a half moon. 

Body and Fluff: Body, similar to that of breast, but shading off 
lighter on under parts. Fluff, black powdered with brown. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, light brown. Shanks and toes, slate or 
leaden-blue. 

Under-Color: Dark leaden-blue. 



ORPINGTONS. 

The Orpingtons are of English origin and, from their first introduction 
in their native land, have been one of the most popular breeds of fowls. 
Their large size, early maturity and winter egg production soon gained for 
them a reputation in all parts of the world, until today, they are the most 
popular breed ever originated on English soil. 

The originator introduced them in several colors, but the Buffs, 
Blacks and Whites were, from the first, the most popular. In these three 
varieties we have nothing to select from except our choice of color, as all 
are alike so far as size and shape govern. They are large and stately in 
appearance with rather long, round, deep bodies, full breasts and broad 
backs; the abundance of hackle and saddle feathers on the male giving the 
appearance of a rather short back. 

The legs are rather short and stand well apart. Shanks large and 
nearly round. The skin of the three varieties is white. The shanks of 
the Buffs and Whites are white, or pinkish-white. The Orpingtons have 
the distinction of being the only breed recognized where all varieties have 
solid color, and no one variety can claim any distinction over the other, as 
all are alike popular. 

The fanciers of the varieties are striving to maintain the color and 
shape, and to hold the Buffs with rich, golden buff surface color that har- 
monizes in all sections, with under-color free from white or black. The 
Blacks, with their lustrous black surface, free from purple bars. The 
Whites, with pure white plumage in all sections, free from brassiness. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 10 lbs. Hen 8 lbs. 

Cockerel 8$ lbs. Pullet 7 lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Rather long, broad, deep. 

Beak: Short, stout, regularly curved. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb: Single, rather large, set firmly on head, perfectly straight and 
upright; five well-defined points, those at front and rear smaller than 
middle ones; fine in texture; blades free from serrations. 

174 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 175 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles of medium size, well rounded 
at lower edges. Ear-lobes, medium size, oblong, smooth. 

Neck: Rather short, well arched, with abundant hackle. 

Wings: Of medium size, well folded; wing-fronts, well covered by 
breast feathers; wing-points, well covered by saddle feathers. 

Back: Broad, medium, flat at shoulders, rising with a full concave 
sweep to tail; saddle feathers, of medium length, abundant. 

Tail: Moderately long, fairly well spread, carried at an angle of 
forty-five degrees from the horizontal, forming no apparent angle with 
back where these sections join; sickles, of medium length, spreading 
laterally beyond main tail feathers; lesser sickles and tail-coverts, of me- 
dium length, nicely curved, sufficiently abundant to cover the main tail 
feathers. 

Breast: Broad, deep, and well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, broad, deep; keel-bone, rather long, 
straight, extending well forward. Fluff, moderately full. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, large, rather short, covered with soft 
feathers; shanks, short, stout in bone, smooth. Toes, of medium length, 
straight, strong, well spread. Shanks and toes, free from feathers and 
down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head : Rather large, broad, deep. 

Beak: Short, stout, regularly curved. 

Eyes: Large, oval. 

Comb: Single, of medium size, set firmly on head, perfectly straight 
and upright; five well-defined points, those in front and rear smaller than 
middle ones; fine in texture. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of medium length, fine in tex- 
ture. Ear-lobes, of medium size, oblong. 

Neck: Rather short, well arched, nicely tapering to head, having a 
moderately full hackle. 

Wings: Of medium size, well folded. 

Back: Broad, moderately long, rising with concave sweep to tail. 

Tail: Moderately long, fairly well spread, carried at an angle of 
forty-five degrees from the horizontal; tail-coverts, abundant. 

Breast: Broad, deep, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rather long, broad, deep; keel-bone, rather 
long, straight, extending well forward. Fluff, moderately full. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, large, rather short, covered with soft 
feathers; shanks, short, stout, set well apart, smooth. Toes, of medium 
length, straight, strong, well spread. Shanks and toes, free from feathers 
and down. 



176 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BUFF ORPINGTONS. 

Disqualifications. 

Positive white in ear-lobes covering more than one-third of the sur- 
face; yellow beak or skin; shanks other than white, or pinkish- white. 
(See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: White, or pinkish- white. 

Eyes: Reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: White, or pinkish- white. 

Plumage: Surface throughout an even shade of rich, golden buff, free 
from shafting or mealy appearance; the head, neck, hackle, back, wing- 
bows and saddle richly glossed. Under-color, a lighter shade of buff, free 
from foreign color. Different shades of buff in two or more sections, is 
a serious defect. A harmonious blending of buff in all sections is most 
desirable. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: White, or pinkish- white. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: White, or pinkish- white. 

Plumage: Surface throughout an even shade of rich, golden buff, free 
from shafting or mealy appearance, the head and neck plumage showing 
a luster of same shade as the rest of the plumage. Under-color, a lighter 
shade, free from foreign color. Different shades of buff in two or more 
sections, is a serious defect. A harmonious blending of buff in all sections 
is most desirable. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 177 

BLACK ORPINGTONS. 

Disqualifications. 

Positive white in ear-lobes covering more than one-third of surface; 
one-half inch or more of white in any part of plumage; yellow skin. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: Black. 

Eyes: Black, or dark brown. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 
Shanks and Toes: Black; web and bottom of toes, white. 
Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish-black throughout; under-color, 
black. 

WHITE ORPINGTONS. 

D isqualifications. 

Positive white in ear-lobes covering more than one-third of surface; 
feathers other than white in any part of plumage; yellow skin; shanks 
other than white or pinkish-white. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEM\LE. 

Beak: White, or pinkish- white. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: White, or pinkish-white. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



178 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BUFF ORPINGTON MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 179 




BUFF ORPINGTON FEMALE 



Class V. 



POLISH. 

Breed Varieties 

White Crested Black 
Bearded Golden 
Bearded Silver 

Polish Bearded White 

Buff Laced 
Non-Bearded Golden 
Non-Bearded Silver 
Non-Bearded White 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Symmetry 4 

Size 4 

Condition 4 

Comb 2 

Crest — Shape 12, Color 8 20 

Head — ■ Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes 4, Beard* 4 8 

Neck — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Wings — ■ Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — ■ Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Tail — Shape 5, Color 5 10 

Breast — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Body and Fluff — Shape 3, Color 3 8 

Legs and Toes — Shape3, Color3 6 

100 

*0mit " Beard" in the non-bearded varieties, and give the 8 points to " Wattles and Ear-Lobes." 



180 



POLISH. 

The Polish varieties are regarded by fanciers generally as being 
strictly ornamental, although they represent one of the oldest breeds of 
pure-bred fowls. The male, to be a typical specimen, must be of medium 
size, with a large, flowing, well-balanced crest, rising well in front so as not 
to obstruct the sight. The back should be of medium length, and the tail 
large and well expanded, giving the bird a well-balanced appearance. 
The female is, in many respects, similar to the male. She should be com- 
paratively small, and have a large, oval-shaped crest, fitting rather closelv 
on the head and well balanced. Her back should be straight and rather 
short, and the tail large and well expanded. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Large, with a pronounced protuberance on top of skull. 

Beak: Of medium length, slightly curved. 

Nostrils: Large, the crown being elevated above the curved line 
of beak. 

Eyes: Large, full. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, V-shaped, of small size, the smaller the 
better; set evenly on head, retreating into crest; natural absence of comb 
is preferred. Crest, very large, profuse, rising well in front so as not to 
obstruct the sight and falling over on both sides and in rear in a regular, 
even mass. 

IN BEARDED VARIETIES. 

Beard: Thick and full, running back of eye in a graceful curve. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, of equal length, thin, small, 
well rounded on the lower edge. Ear-lobes, small. 

Neck: Of medium length, slightly arched, with abundant hackle 
flowing well down on shoulders. 

Wixgs: Large, well folded. 

Back: Straight, wide across the shoulders, tapering to tail; saddle 
feathers, abundant, with concave sweep near base of tail. 

Tail: Large, well expanded, carried at an angle of forty-five degrees 
from the horizontal; sickles and coverts, abundant and covering main 
tail feathers well. 

Breast: Full, prominent. 

181 



182 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Body and Fluff: Body, short, moderately full, tapering from front 
to rear. Fluff, rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, small; shanks, of medium 
length, slender. Toes, straight. Shanks below hocks, and toes, free 
from feathers and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head, Beak, Nostrils, Eyes, Comb, Wattles and Eah-Lobes: 
Similar to those of male, but smaller. 

Crest: Large, profuse, globular, rising well in front, regular and 
unbroken. 

Beard : Same as male. 

Neck: Of medium length, tapering, with full hackle. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Straight, broadest at shoulders, tapering with concave sweep 
near base of tail. 

Tail: Large, broad, well expanded, carried at an angle of forty-five 
degrees from the horizontal. 

Breast: Full, round. 

Body and Fluff: Body, short, moderately full. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, small; shanks, of medium 
length, slender. Toes, straight. Shanks below hocks, and toes, free 
from feathers and down. 

WHITE-CRESTED BLACK POLISH. 

Disqualifications. 

White in any part of plumage extending over half an inch, except in 
crest; shanks other than blue or dark leaden-blue, except the natural fading 
from age. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Bluish-black. 
Eyes: Black, or brown. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, red. Crest, white; a narrow band of black 
feathers at base of feathers in front allowable, but the fewer the better. 
Face: Red. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, red. Ear-lobes, white. 
Shanks and Toes: Bluish-black. 
Plumage, except Crest: Lustrous greenish-black. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 183 

BEARDED GOLDEN POLISH. 

Disqualifications. 

Shanks other than blue or slaty-blue, except the natural fading from 
age. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, red. Crest, golden bay, laced with black. 

Beard: Golden bay, laced with black. 

Face: Red. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, red. Ear-lobes, white. 

Neck: Golden bay, each feather laced with black. 

Wings: Primaries, bay, ending with black, the black tapering to a 
point on lower edge; secondaries, golden bay, with well-defined, black 
lacing; coverts, golden bay, each feather laced with black, widest at end, 
forming two well-defined wing-bars. 

Back: Golden bay, the end of each feather laced with black; saddle 
feathers, abundant, each feather laced with black, the texture of feather 
giving a rayed appearance. 

Tail: Golden bay, each feather laced with black, widest at end; 
sickles and coverts, golden bay, each feather laced with black, widest at 
end. 

Breast: Golden bay, free from mossing, each feather laced with 
black, the lacing being proportionate to size of feather. 

Body and Fluff: Body, golden bay, each feather laced with black. 
Fluff, bay, tinged with black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, bay, laced with black; shanks and toes, 
slaty-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, red. Crest, in pullets, black, laced with 
bay, which, after first molt, shoidd be golden bay, laced with black. 

Beard: Golden bay, heavily laced with black. 

Face: Red. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, red. Ear-lobes, white. 

Neck: Golden bay, each feather laced with black. 

Wings: Primaries, golden bay, each feather ending with black, the 
black tapering to a point on lower edge; secondaries, golden bay, with 



181 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




WHITE-CRESTED BLACK POLISH MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 185 




WHITE-CRESTED BLACK POLISH FEMALE 



186 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

well-defined black ending; bows, golden bay, each feather laced with black; 
coverts, golden bay, each feather laced with black, the black growing wider 
at the extremity, forming two distinctly laced bars across wings. 

Back: Golden bay, each feather laced with black. 

Tail: Golden bay, each feather laced with black, the black being 
wider at outer end of feather. 

Breast: Golden bay, each feather laced with black. 

Body and Fluff: Body, golden bay, each feather laced with black. 
Fluff, a lighter shade of bay tinged with black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, bay, each feather laced with black. Shanks 
and toes, slaty-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 

BEARDED SILVER POLISH. 

Disqualifications. 

Shanks other than blue or slaty-blue, except the natural fading from 
age. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, red. Crest, white, laced with black. 

Beard: White, laced with black. 

Face: Red. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, red. Ear-lobes, white. 

Neck : White, each feather laced with black. 

Wings: Primaries, white, ending with black, the black tapering to a 
point on lower edges; secondaries, white, with well-defined black lacing; 
coverts, white, each feather laced with black, widest at end, forming two 
well-defined wing bars. 

Back: White, the end of each feather laced with black; saddle 
feathers, abundant, each feather laced with black, the texture of feathers 
giving a rayed appearance. 

* Tail: White, each feather laced with black, widest at ends; sickles 
and coverts, white, each feather laced with black, widest at ends. 

Breast: White, free from mossing, each feather laced with black, the 
lacing being proportionate to size of feather. 

Body and Fluff: Body, white, each feather laced with black. 
Fluff, white, tinged with black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white laced with black; shanks and toes, 
slaty-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 187 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, red. Crest in pullets, black, laced with 
white. Beard, white, heavily laced with black. 

Face: Red. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, red. Ear-lobes, white. 

Neck: White, each feather laced with black. 

Wings: Primaries, white, each feather ending with black, the black 
tapering to a point on lower edge; secondaries, white, with well-defined 
black lacing. Bows, white, each feather laced with black. Coverts, 
white, each feather laced with black, the black growing wider at the ex- 
tremity, forming two distinctly laced bars across wing. 

Back: White, each feather laced with black. 

Tail: White, each feather laced with black, the black being wider at 
outer end of feather. 

Breast: White, each feather laced with black. 

Body and Fluff: Body, white, each feather laced with black. Fluff, 
white, tinged with black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white, each feather laced with black. 
Shanks and toes, slaty-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 



BEARDED WHITE POLISH. 

Disqualifications. 

Shanks other than blue or slaty-blue, except the natural fading from 
age. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Red. 

Ear-Lobes: White. 

Shanks and Toes : Slaty-blue. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



188 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BEARDED SILVER POLISH MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



189 




BEARDED SILVER POLISH FEMALE 



190 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BUFF LACED POLISH. 

Disqualifications . 

Shanks other than blue or slaty-blue, except the natural fading from 
age. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Slaty- blue. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles : Bright red. 

Eak-Lobes: White. 

Crest: Rich buff, laced with pale buff. 

Beard: Rich buff, laced with pale buff. 

Head : Rich buff, ticked with pale buff. 

Neck: Rich buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Wings: Wing- bows, rich buff, laced with pale buff; primaries, buff, 
the outer end having an edging of pale buff; secondaries, rich buff, with a 
well-defined pale buff lacing; coverts, rich buff, each feather laced with 
pale buff, widest at ends, forming two-well defined wing-bars. 

Back: Rich buff, the end of each feather laced with pale buff; saddle, 
rich buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Tail: Buff; sickles and coverts, buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Breast: Rich buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rich buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 
Fluff, light buff. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, buff, laced with pale buff. Shanks and 
toes, slaty-blue. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Slaty-blue. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear-Lobes: White. 

Crest: Buff, laced with pale buff. 

Beard : Buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Neck: Buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Wings: Bows, buff, laced with pale buff; primaries, buff; second- 
aries, buff, with a well-defined lacing of pale buff; coverts, buff, laced with 
pale buff, the pale buff growing wider at extremity, forming two well- 
defined wing-bars. 

Back : Buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Tail: Buff, each feather laced with pale buff, the pale buff being 
wider at outer end of feather. 

Breast : Buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 191 

Body and Fluff: Body, buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 
Fluff, light buff. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 
Shanks and toes, slaty-blue. 

NON-BEARDED POLISH. 

(Golden, Silver and White.) 

The same as the bearded varieties in every respect, including dis- 
qualifications, shape and color, except that they have no beard. (See 
general disqualifications.) 



Class VI. 

HAMBURGS. 
Breed ( Varieties 

Golden Spangled 
Silver Spangled 

Hamburgs 1 Golden Penciled 

Silver Penciled 

White 

Black 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Symmetry 4 

Size 4 

Condition 4 

Comb 10 

Head — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Beak — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Eyes — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes — Shape 5, Color .5 10 

Neck — Shape 5, Color 2 7 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 6 10 

Back — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Tail — Shape4, Color8 12 

Breast — Shape 4, Color 5 9 

Body and Fluff — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Legs and Toes — Shape 2, Color 2 _■ 4 

100 



192 



HAMBURGS. 

The Hamburgs originated in Holland and derived their name from 
the city of Hamburg. They are one of our oldest standard breeds, and 
blood from at least two of the varieties has been used in establishing some 
of our most popular American breeds. They breed remarkably true to 
type, birds at all ages showing symmetrical outlines in striking contrast 
to other Standard fowl. In size they are rather small, and, while classed 
as ornamentals by some, they are remarkable egg producers and have been 
known in some localities as everlasting layers. The eggs of the Hamburg 
are rather small with white shells. Their plumage is close fitting and, in 
markings in the Silver and Golden Spangled and Silver and Golden Pen- 
ciled, rival the pheasant in beauty. The plumage of the Golden Penciled 
female is considered by many to be the handsomest found in any Standard 
fowl. The combs of all varieties are rose, rather large for the size of the 
specimen. The difficulty of securing perfection in the wide range of color 
found in the several varieties, calls forth the greatest skill of the fanciers, 
and they are found in their highest state of perfection in the yards of our 
oldest and best informed breeders. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Short, small. 

Beak: Of medium size. 

Eyes: Full. 

Comb: Rose, not so large as to overhang the eyes or beak, square in 
front, firm and even on head, without inclining to either side, uniform on 
sides, top covered with small points, free from hollow in center, terminating 
at rear in a spike which inclines upward very slightly. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, broad, thin, well rounded, free 
from wrinkles. Ear-lobes, of medium size, flat, round, smooth, even, 
fitting closely to head. 

Neck: Tapering, with full hackle flowing well over shoulders. 

Wings: Large, carried rather low. 

Back: Of medium length, flat at shoulders, straight, gradually slop- 
ing to rear of saddle. 

Tail: Full, well expanded, carried at an angle of forty degrees from 
the horizontal; sickles, well curved; coverts, abundant. 

Breast: Broad, prominent. 

Body and Fluff; Body, round, symmetrical. Fluff, rather short. 

193 



194 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium size; shanks, of medium length. 
Toes, straight. Shanks below hocks, and toes, free from feathers and 
down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Short, small. 

Beak: Of medium size. 

Eyes: Full. 

Comb : Rose, similar to that of male, but smaller. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, small, thin, well rounded. Ear- 
lobes, small, flat, round, smooth, even, fitting closely to head. 

Neck: Tapering, with full hackle. 

Wings: Large, carried rather low. 

Back: Of medium length, moderately full, with slight concave sweep 
to tail. 

Tail: Full, somewhat expanded, carried at an angle of forty degrees 
from the horizontal. 

Breast: Broad, prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, round, symmetrical. Fluff, rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium size, well developed; shanks, 
rather short, slender. Toes, straight. Shanks below hocks, and toes, 
free from feathers and down. 



GOLDEN SPANGLED HAMBURGS. 

Disqualifications. 

Red in ear-lobes covering more than one-third of the surface; absence 
of distinct bars across the wings; markings wholly crescentic; shanks other 
than leaden-blue, except the natural fading from age; hen-feathered male. 
(See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, golden bay. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish- bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White. 

Neck: Golden bay, with a glossy, greenish-black stripe extending 
down middle of each feather, terminating in a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Bows, rich, golden bay, distinctly spangled with lustrous 
greenish -black; primaries, upper web black, lower web bay; secondaries, 
rich golden bay, lower feathers ending with lustrous greenish-black, 
crescent-shaped spangles, gradually increasing into round-shaped spangles 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 195 

as they approach the back; coverts, clear golden bay, free from lacing, each 
feather ending with a large, greenish-black spangle, forming two distinct 
parallel bars across wings. 

Back: Lustrous golden bay, spangled with greenish-black, the tex- 
ture of the feathers giving the spangles a rayed appearance; saddle feathers, 
lustrous golden bay with a lustrous greenish-black stripe extending down 
middle of each feather, same as in hackle. 

Tail: Lustrous greenish-black; sickles, lustrous greenish-black; 
coverts, lustrous greenish-black. 

Breast: Golden bay, each feather ending with a large, lustrous 
greenish-black spangle, the spangle being proportionate to size of feather. 

Body and Fluff: Golden bay, each feather ending with a large, 
greenish-black spangle, the spangle being proportionate to size of feather. 
Fluff, bay, tinged with slate. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, golden bay, each feather ending with a 
greenish-black spangle. Shanks and toes, leaden-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 



COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, rich, golden bay. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear-Lobes: White. 

Neck: Golden bay, with a lustrous greenish-black stripe extending 
down middle of each feather, terminating in a point near its extremity. 

Wings: Bows, golden bay, distinctly spangled with lustrous greenish- 
black; primaries, upper web black, lower web bay; secondaries, golden 
bay, each feather ending with a lustrous greenish-black crescent-shaped 
spangle, gradually increasing into round-shaped spangles as it approaches 
the back; coverts, clear reddish-bay, free from lacing, each feather ending 
with a large, greenish-black spangle, forming two distinct parallel bars 
across wings. 

Back: Golden bay, each feather ending with a large, greenish-black 
spangle, the spangle being proportionate to size of feather. 

Tail: Greenish-black; coverts, golden bay, each feather ending with 
a lustrous greenish-black spangle. 

Breast: Golden bay, each feather ending with a large, greenish- 
black spangle, the spangle being proportionate to size of feather. 

Body and Fluff: Body, golden bay, each feather ending with a 
large, greenish-black spangle, the spangle being proportionate to size 
of feather. Fluff, slate, tinged with gray. 



196 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, golden bay, each feather ending with a 
greenish-black spangle. Shanks and toes, leaden-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 

Note: In all sections where the word "spangle" appears, when 
shape is not otherwise described, read, " edges of spangle following web 
of feather and meeting at shaft." 

SILVER SPANGLED HAMBURGS. 

Disqualifications. 

Red in ear-lobes covering more than one-third of the surface; absence 
of distinct bars across the wings; markings wholly crescentic; shanks other 
than leaden-blue, except the natural fading from age; hen-feathered male. 
(See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head : Plumage, white. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes : Black, or brown. 

Comb, Face and Wattles : Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White. 

Neck: White, each feather ending with an elongated, black spangle, 
the spangle being proportionate to size of feather. 

Wings:. Bows, silvery white, distinctly spangled with black; pri- 
maries, white, each feather edged with black at end; secondaries, clear, 
silvery white, each feather ending with a black, crescent-shaped spangle, 
gradually increasing into a round-shaped spangle as it approaches the 
back; coverts, silvery white, free from lacing, each feather ending with a 
large, black spangle, forming two distinct parallel bars across wings. 

Back: Clear, silvery white, spangled with black, the texture of 
feathers giving spangles a rayed appearance; saddle, clear, silvery white, 
each feather ending with a black spangle. 

Tail: White, each feather ending with a long, black spangle; sickles, 
pure white, ending with a large, black spangle; coverts, pure white, ending 
with black spangles. 

Breast: Clear, silvery white, each feather ending with a large, black 
spangle, the spangle being proportionate to size of feather. 

Body and Fluff: Body, clear, silvery white, each feather ending with 
a large, black spangle, the spangle being proportionate to size of feather. 
Fluff, slate, tinged with white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, silvery white, each feather ending with a 
black spangle. Shanks and toes, leaden-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 197 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Black, or brown. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear-Lobes: White. 

Neck: White, each feather ending with an elongated, small, black 
spangle. 

Wings: Bows, silvery white, distinctly spangled with black; pri- 
maries, white, each feather ending with black at end; secondaries, clear, 
silvery white, each feather ending with a lustrous, black, crescent-shaped 
spangle, gradually increasing into a round-shaped spangle as it approaches 
the back; coverts, silvery white, each feather ending with a large, black 
spangle, forming two distinct parallel bars across wings. 

Back: Silvery white, each feather ending with a large, black spangle. 

Tail: White, each feather ending with a large, black spangle; coverts, 
white on the outside, each feather ending with a black spangle. 

Breast: Clear, silvery white, each feather ending with a black 
spangle, the spangle being proportionate to size of feather. 

Body and Fluff: Body, clear, silver}- white, each feather ending 
■with a black spangle, the spangle being proportionate to size of feather. 
Fluff, slate, tinged with white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, silvery white, each feather ending with a 
black spangle. Shanks and toes, leaden-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 

Note. In all sections where the word "spangle" appears, when 
shape is not otherwise described, lead " edges of spangle following the 
web of feather and meeting at shaft." 



GOLDEN PENCILED HAMBURGS. 

D isq ualificat ions. 

Red in ear-lobes covering one-third of the surface; breast of hen not 
penciled; shanks other than leaden-blue, except the natural fading from 
age; hen-feathered male. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, rich, bright bay. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear-Lobes: White. 



198 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SILVER SPANGLED HAMBURG MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



199 




SILVER SPANGLED HAMBURG FEMALE 



200 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




GOLDEN PENCILED HAMBURG MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



201 




GOLDEN PENCILED HAMBURG FEMALE 



202 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Neck: Rich, bright reddish- bay. 

Wings: Bows, bright reddish- bay, primaries, upper web black, lower 
web bay; secondaries, upper web reddish-bay, penciled across with black 
bars, lower web reddish-bay, each feather ending with a small, black spot ; 
coverts, reddish-bay, upper web slightly penciled across with black bars. 

Back: Rich, bright reddish-bay. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, greenish-black with a distinct 
edging of rich, reddish-bay, the narrower the better. 
. Breast: Rich reddish-bay. 

Body and Fluff: Body, lustrous reddish-bay, the sides below wings 
penciled across with black bars. Fluff, black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, reddish-bay. Shanks and toes, leaden- 
blue. 

Undek-Color : Slate. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, bright reddish-bay. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White. 

Neck: Bright bay. 

Wings: Bows, clear bay, distinctly penciled across with greenish- 
black; primaries, bay; secondaries and coverts, bay, penciled across with 
greenish-black. 

» Back: Bay, each feather distinctly penciled across with parallel bars 
of greenish-black. 

Tail: Bay, penciled across with greenish-black; coverts, bay, pen- 
ciled across with greenish-black. 

" Breast: Bright bay, each feather distinctly penciled across with 
parallel bars of greenish-black. 

Body and Fluff: Body, bay, each feather distinctly penciled across 
with parallel bars of greenish-black, the bars forming, as nearly as possible, 
parallel lines across the bird. Fluff, bay, penciled with black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, bay, penciled across with greenish-black. 
Shanks and toes, leaden-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 203 

SILVER PENCILED HAMBURGS. 

Disqualifications. 

Red in ear-lobes covering one-third of the surface; breast of female 
not penciled; shanks other than leaden-blue, except the natural fading 
from age; hen-feathered male. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White. 

Neck: Clear white. 

Wings: Bows, white; primaries, white; secondaries, upper web black, 
with a narrow border of white or gray on edge; lower web, white with a 
narrow stripe of black next to shaft of feather; coverts, apparently white 
when the wings are folded, but penciled with black on upper web. 

Back: Silvery white; saddle feathers, silvery white. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, black, with a distinct edging of 
white, the narrower and more uniform the better. 

Breast: White. 

Body and Fluff: Body, white, the sides below wings penciled across 
with black bars. Fluff, white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, silvery white; shanks and toes, leaden-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White. 

Neck: White, except at base which should be penciled across with 
narrow bars of greenish-black. 

Wings: Bows, white, distinctly penciled with greenish-black; pri- 
maries, white; secondaries and coverts, white, penciled across with green- 
ish-black. 

Back: White, each feather distinctly penciled across with narrow, 
parallel bars of greenish-black. 

Tail: White, penciled across with greenish- black; coverts, silvery 
white, penciled across with greenish-black. 



204 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Breast: White, each feather distinctly penciled across with narrow, 
parallel bars of greenish-black. 

Body and Fluff: Body, white, each feather distinctly penciled 
across with narrow, parallel bars of greenish-black, the bars forming, as 
nearly as possible, narrow, parallel lines across the bird. Fluff, white, 
penciled with black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white, penciled across with greenish-black; 
shanks and toes, leaden-blue. 

Under-Color: Slate. 

WHITE HAMBURGS. 

Disqualifications. 

Red in ear-lobes covering one-third of surface; feathers other than 
white in any part of plumage; shanks other than leaden- blue, except the 
natural fading from age. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Leaden-blue. 

Eyes: Brown. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear- Lobes: White. 

Shanks and Toes : Leaden-blue. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure white. 

BLACK HAMBURGS. 

Disqualifications. 

Red in ear-lobes covering one-third of the surface; white in the face 
of cockerels or pullets; pure white in any part of plumage extending over 
half an inch, or two or more feathers tipped or edged with positive white; 
shanks other than leaden-blue or black, except the natural fading from age. 
(See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Black. 
Eyes: Black, or brown. 
Comb, Face and Wattles : Bright red. 
Ear- Lobes: White. 
Shanks and Toes: Black. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish-black throughout. Under- 
color, black. 



Class VII. 

FRENCH. 

Breeds Varieties 

Houdans Mottled 

Crevecoeurs Black 

La Fleche Black 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

(Except for La Fleche, which are subject to Scale of Points for American Class.) 

Symmetry 4 

Weight 4 

Condition 4 

Comb 4 

Head — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Beak — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Eyes — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Ear-Lobes and Wattles — ■ Shape 2, Color 3 5 

Neck — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Tail — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Breast — Shape 6, Color 4 10 

Body and Fluff — Shape 4, Color 3 7 

Legs and Toes — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Crest and Beard — Shape 8, Color 4 12 

100 



205 



HOUDANS. 

The Houdan characteristics are quite pronounced and should be pre- 
served in every detail. There is a certain regularity in the color of plum- 
age of this breed that, too often, is overlooked. The glossy, black feathers 
should be tipped regularly with white in the proportion of about one tipped 
feather to five solid black ones; a splashy white is not desirable. The 
Standard weights are not placed unduly high, hence their attainment 
should be common in well-bred birds. Houdans resemble the Dorkings 
in shape and size. The crest of the Houdan is one of the most important 
sections; it should be round and not divided at the top. 

Disqualifications. 

Absence of crest or beard; feathers other than black or white in any 
part of plumage. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 7$ lbs. Hen 6j lbs. 

Cockerel 6£ lbs. Pullet 5% lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Of medium size, carried well up. 

Beak: Of moderate length, well curved. 

Nostrils: Wide, cavernous. 

Eyes: Large. 
* Comb and Crest: Comb, V-shaped, of small size, resting against front 
of crest. Crest, large, well fitted on crown of head, falling backward on 
neck, and composed of feathers similar in shape and texture to those of 
hackle. 

Beard : Full, well developed, curving around to back of eyes, nearly 
hiding face. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, of uniform length, small, well 
rounded, nearly concealed by beard. Ear-lobes, entirely concealed br 
crest and beard. 

Neck: Of medium length, well arched, with abundant hackle flowing 
well down on shoulders. 

Wings: Moderately large, well folded, bows concealed by breast 
feathers and points by saddle feathers. 

20C 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 207 

Back: Long, broad, slightly sloping toward base of tail; saddle 
feathers, abundant. 

Tail: Full, expanded, carried at an angle of forty degrees from the 
horizontal; sickles and coverts, abundant and well curved. 

Breast: Broad, deep, round. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, compact, well proportioned. Fluff, 
rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, large, set well apart: 
shanks, of medium length. Toes, five upon each foot, straight, except the 
fifth, which should be detached from the others and curve upward. 
Shanks below hocks, and toes, free from feathers and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Of medium *size. 

Beak: Of moderate length, well curved. 

Nostrils: Wide, cavernous. 

Eyes: Large, full. 

Comb .and Crest: Comb, V-shaped, similar to that of male. Crest, 
large, compact, regular, inclining backward in an unbroken mass. 

Beard: Full, well developed, curving around to back of eyes, nearly 
hiding face. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of uniform length, small, well 
rounded, nearly concealed by beard. Ear-lobes, entirely concealed by 
crest and beard. 

Neck: Of medium length, well arched. 

Wings: Moderately large, well folded. 

Back: Long, broad, slightly sloping toward base of tail. 

Tail: Of medium length, rather compact; carried at an angle of 
forty degrees from the horizontal. 

Breast: Broad, deep, well rounded. 

Body and Fluff: Body, long, compact, well proportioned. Fluff, 
rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, strong, set well apart: shanks, of 
medium length. Toes, five upon each foot, straight, except the fifth, 
which should be detached from the others and curved upward. Shanks 
l>elow hocks, and toes, free from feathers and down. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 

Ear-Lobes: White. 

Plumage: Surface, glossy black, mottled with white, the end of 



208 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




HOUDAN MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



209 









' 








"■** •*> - ■ — 









HOUDAN FEMALE 



210 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

about one feather in five tipped with white; the white tips should be sharply 
defined and evenly distributed. 

Wings: Primaries, white and black, black predominating; second- 
aries, black. 

Tail,: Black, ends of feathers tipped with white; sickle feathers, black 
edged with white. 

Shanks and Toes; Pinkish- white, mottled with black. 






CREVECOEURS. 

Disqualifications. 

' Absence of crest or beard; pure white in any part of plumage, extend- 
ing over half an inch, or two or more feathers tipped or edged with positive 
white, except in crest; shanks other than black or dark lead color. (See 
general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 8 lbs. Hen 7 lbs. 

Cockerel 7 lbs. Pullet 6 lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Large, with a pronounced protuberance on top of skull. 

Beak: Strong, well curved. 

Nostrils: Broad, highly arched. 

Eyes: Full, bright. 
- Comb and Crest: Comb, leaf, like the letter V in shape, of medium 
size, resting against front of crest. Crest, large, well fitted on crown of 
head, regular, inclining backward, composed of feathers similar in shape 
and texture to those of hackle. 

Beard: Full, thick, extending around to back of eyes, nearly hiding 
face. 

Face: Almost wholly concealed by crest and beard. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, of uniform length, small, well 
rounded, nearly concealed by beard. Ear-lobes, small, nearly concealed 
by crest and beard. 

Neck: Of medium length, well arched, with abundant hackle flowing 
well down on shoulders. 

Wings: Of medium size, well folded. 

Back: Broad, straight; saddle feathers, abundant. 

Tail: Full, expanded, carried moderately upright ; sickles and coverts, 
abundant, well curved. 

Breast: Broad, full, rounding well to shoulders. 

Body and Fluff: Body, compact, well proportioned. Fluff, rather 
short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, strong; shanks, short, fine in bone, 
standing well apart. Toes, four upon each foot, straight, well spread. 
Shanks and toes, free from feathers and down. 

211 



212 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Large, with a pronounced protuberance on top of skull. 

Beak: Strong, well curved. 

Nostrils: Broad, highly arched. 

Eyes: Full, bright. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, leaf, like letter V in shape, small and as 
nearly concealed by crest as possible. Crest, large, compact, even, globu- 
lar, inclining backward in an unbroken mass. 

Beard: Full, thick, extending around to back of eyes, nearly hiding 
face. 

Face: Almost wholly concealed by crest and beard. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of uniform length, small, well 
rounded, nearly concealed by beard. Ear-lobes, small, entirely concealed 
by crest and beard. 

Neck: Of medium length, thick, well arched. 

Wings: Of medium size, well folded. 

Back: Broad, straight. 

Tail: Moderately expanded at base, converging to tip, carried 
moderately upright. 

Breast: Broad, full, rounding well to shoulders. 

Body and Fluff: Body, compact, well proportioned. Fluff, rather 
short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, strong; shanks, short, fine in bone. 
Toes, four upon each foot, straight, well spread. Shanks and toes, free 
from feathers and down. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Black, shading into horn at tip. 
"Eyes: Bright red. 
Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Red. 
Shanks and Toes: Black, or dark leaden. 
Plumage: Rich, glossy black. 






LA FLECHE. 

D isqualificat ions. 

Presence of crest; pure white in any part of plumage extending over 
half an inch, or two or more feathers tipped or edged with positive white; 
shanks other than black or leaden-black in color. (See general disquali- 
fications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 8jlbs. Hen 7h lbs. 

Cockerel lh lbs. Pullet (>i lbs 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Of medium size, long. 

Beak: Rather long, strong, well curved. 

Nostrils: Wide, cavernous. 

Eyes: Large. 
' Comb: V-shaped; of medium size. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of equal length, long, well 
rounded, pendulous. Ear-lobes, large. 

Neck: Long, erect, with abundant hackle flowing well down on 
shoulders. 

Wings: Long, powerful, well folded. 

Back: Broad, very long, slanting to tail; saddle feathers, abundant. 

Tail: Very long, full, carried rather low; sickles, abundant; coverts. 
well curved. 

Breast: Broad, full, very prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, large, powerful, tapering to tail, with close 
plumage. Fluff, rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, long, powerful; shanks, long. Toes, 
straight, large. Shanks and toes, free from feathers and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head : Of medium size, long. 

Beak: Rather long, strong, well curved. 

Nostrils: Wide, cavernous. 

Eyes: Large. 

Comb: V-shaped: small. 

213 



214 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, of equal length, small, well 
rounded. Ear-lobes, small. 

Neck: Long, carried upright, with full hackle. 

Wings: Long, powerful, well folded. 

Back: Broad, long, slanting to tail. 

Tail: Long, well expanded, carried upright. 

Breast: Broad, full, prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, large, deep, tapering to tail. Fluff, rather 
short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, long, powerful; shanks, long. Toes, 
straight, large. Shanks and toes, free from feathers and down. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Black, or dark horn with a small protuberance of bright red 
flesh at juncture of beak and nostrils. 
Eyes: Bright red. 

Comb, Face and Wattles: Bright red. 
Ear- Lobes: White. 

Shanks and Toes: Black, or leaden-black. 
Plumage: Rich, glossy black. 



Class VIII. 



GAMES AND GAME BANTAMS. 

Breeds Varieties 

Black-Breasted Red 
Brown Red 
Golden Duckwing 

Games Silver Duckwing 

Birchen 

Red Pyle 

White 

Black 

Black-Breasted Red 

Brown Red 

Golden Duckwing 

Silver Duckwing 

Birchen 

Red Pyle 

White 

Black 

SCALE OE POINTS. 

Station 10 

Condition 6 

Comb 2 

Head 
Beak. 

3S. 



Game Bantams. 



Shape 4, Color 1 5 

4 

Eyes 4 

Ear-Lobes and Wattles 2 

Neck — Shape 5, Color 3 8 

Wings — Shape 5, Color 4 9 

Back — Shape 4, Color 3 7 

Tail — Shape 5, Color 3 8 

Breast — - Shape 4, Color 3 7 

Body and Stern — Shape 4, Color 3 7 

Legs and Toes — Shape 10, Color 5 15 

Shortness of feathers (5 

100 



£15 



GAMES. 

The Game has a style or carriage peculiar to itself, which is generally 
described by the word "Station." A high-stationed bird is most desirable. 
Shortness and closeness of feathering are of great importance, as loose- 
feathered birds invariably fail in shape of neck. If the neck feathers are 
too long and soft, the slimness and length of the neck are destroyed. The 
comb and wattles of the cock should be dubbed, in order to have the head 
and lower jaw smooth and free from ridges. Exceptionally large birds 
are undesirable, as overgrowth tends to coarseness at the expense of form 
and style of carriage, which are essential to superior quality in Games. 

Disqualifications. 

Cocks not dubbed; artificial coloring, trimming or plucking of foul 
feathers. Games are not to be disqualified for side sprigs. (See general 
disqualifications.) 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Long, lean and bony. 

Beak: Long, tapering, slightly curved. 

Eyes: Large, full, with keen expression. 

Comb: Cock, neatly and smoothly dubbed; cockerel, if undubbed, 
single, small, straight, thin, erect, evenly serrated. 

Face: Lean, thin, with fine skin. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Cock, neatly and smoothly dubbed; 
cockerel, if undubbed, small, thin, round, smooth. 

Neck: Long, very slightly arched, carried erect, tapering neatly and 
gradually from body to head, thin and clean-cut at throat, giving a distinct 
outline to head; hackle, short, close. 

Wings: Large, powerful, the fronts standing out from body at 
shoulders, the feathers folded closely together, the points not extending 
beyond body; carried without drooping, but not carried over the back. 

Back: Flat, rather short, straight on top from hackle to tail, broad at 
shoulders, narrowing and sloping to stern. 

Tail: Rather short, compact, closely folded, carried at slight eleva- 
tion; sickle feathers, narrow, short, tapering; tail-coverts, narrow, fine, 
short. 

Breast: Broad, rounded at sides. 

216 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 217 

Body and Stern: Body, fine and close on under part; not deep. 
Stern, well tucked up underneath. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, long, muscular, standing out from body, 
but slightly sloping to hocks. Shanks, long, smooth, bony, standing well 
apart. Toes, long, straight, well spread. Shanks below hocks, and toes, 
free from feathers and down. 

Plumage: Short, close. 

Station: Erect. 

Size: Exceptionally large birds are undesirable. 

Note: Cockerels shown after Nov. 1st should be dubbed. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Long, lean and bony. 

Beak: Long, tapering, slightly curved. 

Eves: Large, full, with keen expression. 

Comb: Single, small, straight, thin, erect, evenly serrated. 

Face: Lean, thin, with fine skin. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, small, thin, round. Ear-lobes, 
small. 

Neck: Long, very slightly arched, carried erect, tapering neatly and 
gradually from body to head, thin and clean-cut at throat, giving a distinct 
outline to head ; hackle, short, close. 

Wings: Large, powerful, the fronts standing out from body at 
shoulders, the feathers folded closely together, the points not extending 
beyond body; carried without drooping, but not carried over the back. 

Back: Flat, rather short, straight on top from hackle to tail, broad at 
shoulders, narrowing and sloping to stern. 

Tail: Rather short, compact, closely folded, carried at slight eleva- 
tion. 

Breast: Broad, round at sides. 

Body and Stern: Body, fine and close on under part; not deep. 
Stern, well tucked up underneath. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, long, muscular, standing out from body, 
but slightly sloping to hocks. Shanks, long, smooth, bony, standing well 
apart. Toes, long, straight, well spread. Shanks below hocks, and toes, 
free from feathers and down. 

Plumage: Short, close. 

Station: Erect. 

Size: Exceptionally large birds are undesirable. 



218 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BLACK-BREASTED RED GAMES. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, light orange. 
Beak: Horn. 
• Eyes: Red. 
Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes : Red. 
Neck: Hackle, light golden. 

Wings: Shoulders, black; wing-fronts, black; wing-bows, red; wing- 
coverts, lustrous black, forming a distinct bar across wing; primaries, black, 
except lower feather, the outer web of which should be bay; secondaries, 
part of outer web forming wing-bay, bay, remainder of feathers, black. 
'Back: Bright red; saddle, light golden. 

Tail: Black; sickle feathers and tail-coverts, lustrous black. 
^Breast: Black. 
Body and Stern : Black. 
Legs and Toes: Thighs, black. Shanks and toes, willow-green. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, gold. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Red. 

Neck : Hackle, light golden with black stripe through middle of each 
feather terminating in a point near extremity of feather. 

Wings: Shoulders, wing-fronts, wing- bows, wing-coverts and second- 
aries, grayish-brown, stippled with golden brown; primaries, black. 

Back: Grayish-brown, stippled with golden brown. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers which, with the coverts, 
should be brown. 

Breast: Light salmon, shading off to ashy-brown toward thighs. 

Body and Stern: Ashy-brown. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, ashy-brown. Shanks and toes, willow- 
green. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 219 

BROWN RED GAMES. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, orange. 

Beak: Black. 

Eyes: Black. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Dark purple. 

Neck: Hackle, lemon, with a _iarro\v, dark stripe through middle of 
each feather, terminating in a point near extremity of feather. 

Wings: Shoulders, black; wing-fronts, black; wing- bows, lemon; 
wing-coverts, lustrous black; primaries and secondaries, black. 

Back: Lemon; saddle, lemon, with a narrow, dark stripe through 
middle of each feather, terminating in a point near extremity of feather. 

Tail: Black; sickle feathers and tail-coverts, lustrous black. 

Breast: Black, the feathers laced with lemon. 

Body and Stern: Black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black. Shanks and toes, black. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 
Head: Plumage, lemon. 
Beak: Black. 
Eyes: Black. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Dark purple. 
Neck: Hackle, lemon with a narrow, dark stripe through middle of 
each feather terminating in a point near extremity of feather. 
Wings: Black. 
Back: Black. 
Tail: Black. 

Breast: Black, each feather laced with lemon. 
Body and Stern: Black. 
Legs and Toes: Thighs, black. Shanks and toes, black. 



220 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BLACK-BREASTED RED GAME MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



221 




BLACK-BREASTED RED GAME FEMALE 



222 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

GOLDEN DUCKWING GAMES. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, creamy white. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Red. 

Neck: Hackle, creamy white, free from striping. 

Wings: Shoulders, black; wing-fronts, black; wing-bows, golden; 
greater and lesser wing-coverts, blue-black, forming a distinct bar across 
wing; primaries, black, except lower feathers, outer web of which should be 
creamy white; secondaries, part of outer web forming wing-bay, creamy 
white, remainder of feathers, black. 

Back: Golden; saddle, light golden, free from black striping. 

Tail: Black; sickle feathers and tail-coverts, lustrous blue-black; 
lesser tail-coverts, light golden. 

Breast: Black. 

Body and Stern: Black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black. Shanks and toes, willow. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery gray. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Red. 

Neck: Hackle, silvery gray, with narrow, dark stripe through middle 
of each feather terminating in a point near extremity of feather. 

Wings: Shoulders, wing-fronts, wing-bows, wing-coverts and second- 
aries, gray, stippled with dark gray; primaries, dark brown. 

Back: Gray, stippled with darker gray. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers, which should be gray, 
stippled with darker gray. 

Breast: Rich salmon. 

Body and Stern: Ashy-gray. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, ashy-gray. Shanks and toes, willow. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 223 

SILVER DUCKWING GAMES. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Red. 

Neck: Hackle, white, free from black stripes. 

Wings: Shoulders, black; wing-coverts, blue-black; wing-fronts, 
black; wing-bows, white, forming distinct bar across wing; primaries, 
black, except lower feathers, outer web of which should be white; second- 
aries, part of outer web forming wing-bay, white, remainder of feathers, 
black. 

"Back: White; saddle, white, free from black stripes. 

Tail: Black; sickle feathers and tail-coverts, lustrous blue-black; 
lesser tail-coverts, white. 
-Breast: Black. 

Body and Stern: Black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black. Shanks and toes, willow. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, silvery gray. 

Beak: Horn. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Red. 

Neck: Hackle, silvery gray, with narrow, black stripe through middle 
of each feather terminating in a point near extremity of feather. 

Wings: Shoulders, wing-fronts, wing- bows, wing-coverts and second- 
aries, light gray, finely stippled with darker gray; primaries, black 

Back: Light gray, finely stippled with darker gray. 

Tail: Black, except the two top feathers, which should be light gray, 
stippled with darker gray. 
•> Breast: Light salmon. 

Body and Stern: Ashy-gray. 

Legs and Toes; Thighs, ashy-gray. Shanks and toes, willow. 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SILVER DUCKWING GAME MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 225 




SILVER DUCKWING GAME FEMALE 



226 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BIRCHEN GAMES. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 

Beak: Black. 

Eyes: Black. 
■ Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Dark purple. 

Neck: Hackle, white, with narrow, dark stripe through middle ot 
each feather terminating in a point near extremity of feather. 

Wings: Shoulders, black; wing-fronts, black; wing-bows, white; 
wing-coverts, glossy black; primaries and secondaries, black. 

Back: White; saddle, white, with narrow, black stripe through middle 
of each feather. 

Tail: Black; sickle feathers and tail-coverts, lustrous black. 

Breast: Ground color, black, the feathers laced with white. 

Body and Stern: Black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black. Shanks and toes, black. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, white. 
Beak: Black. 
Eyes: Black. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Dark purple. 
Neck: Hackle, white, with narrow, dark stripe through middle of 
each feather terminating in a point near extremity of feather. 
Wings: Black. 
Back: Black. 
Tail: Black. 

Breast: Black, feathers laced with white. 
Body and Stern: Black. 
Legs and Toes: Thighs, black. Shanks and toes, black. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 227 

RED PYLE GAMES. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, bright orange. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Red. 

Neck: Hackle, light orange. 

Wings: Shoulders, white; wing-fronts, white; wing- bows, red; wing- 
coverts, white, forming distinct bar across wing; primaries, white, except 
lower feathers, outer web of which is bay; secondaries, part of outer web 
forming wing-bay, red, remainder of feathers, white. 
^Back: Red; saddle, light orange. 

Tail: Sickle and tail-coverts, white. 
' Breast: White. 

Body and Stern: White. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white. Shanks and toes, yellow. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head : Plumage, golden. 
Beak: Yellow. 
Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Red. 
Neck: Hackle, white, the feathers edged with gold. 
Wings: White. 
^Back: White. 
Tail: White. 
Breast: Salmon. 
Body and Stern: White. 
Legs and Toes: Thighs, white. Shanks and toes, yellow. 



228 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




RED PYLE GAME MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



229 




RED PYLE GAME FEMALE 



230 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

WHITE GAMES. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Red. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes : Red. 

Legs and Toes: Yellow. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure white. 

BLACK GAMES.. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: Black. 
Eyes: Brown. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Deep red. 
Legs and Toes: Black. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish-black throughout; under- 
color, black. 



GAME BANTAMS. 

Disqualifications. 

Cocks, not dubbed; artificial coloring, trimming or plucking of foul 
feathers; cocks weighing over 28 ounces; hens weighing over 26 ounces: 
cockerels weighing over 26 ounces; pullets weighing over 24 ounces. 
Game Bantams are not to be disqualified for side sprigs. (See general 
disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 22 oz. Hen 20 oz. 

Cockerel 20 oz. Pullet 18 oz. 

SHAPE AND COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

The shape and color of Game Bantams shall be the same as of the 
corresponding varieties of Games. 



231 



Class IX. 

ORIENTALS. 

Breeds Varieties 

f Dark 

Cornish I White 

( White-Laced Red 

Sumatras Black 

Malays Black-Breasted Red 

Malay Bantams Black-Breasted Red 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Station 8 

Weight 4 

Condition 4 

Comb 6 

Head — Shape 3, Color 1 4 

Beak — Shape 1, Color 1 2 

Eyes — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Ear-Lobes — Shape 1, Color 1 2 

Wattles — Shape 1 

Neck — Shape 4, Color 3 7 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — Shape 6, Color 4 10 

Tail — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Breast — Shape 6, Color 4 10 

Body and Stern — Shape 6, Color 3 9 

Legs and Toes — Shape 6, Color 3 9 

Shortness of Feathers 4 

100 



232 



CORNISH FOWLS. 

The Cornish Fowl originated in Cornwall, England, some years prior 
to 1846. They were produced by crossing a Lord Derby Black-Breasted 
Red Game with a Red Aseel imported from India. Later on the blood of 
the Sumatra Game was introduced. The parental blood is apparent in 
the Cornish of the present day. From the Aseel they derive the short, 
thick legs, large thighs, deep and broad breast, great width of back at 
shoulders, comparatively short neck and projecting brows; from the Lord 
Derby Game, the red color of plumage and the tendency of the breed to- 
ward red eyes; from the Sumatra Game, the great luster of plumage, es- 
pecially in the tail. They are sturdy in appearance, and the thighs are 
stout and muscular. The breast bone is well set in, causing a lack of full- 
ness of breast, which is, however, very broad and rounded at the sides. 
The carriage is upright, the shoulders being carried high and the stern low. 
The body between thighs should be very wide. The White variety is 
identical with the Dark Cornish, except that the plumage should be pure 
white. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 9 lbs. Hen 7 lbs. 

Cockerel 8 lbs. Pullet 6 lbs. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Short, deep and broad, the crown projecting over the eyes, 
indicating great vigor and strong constitution. 

Beak: Short and stout, well curved. 

Eyes: Full, with bold and fearless expression, not sunken, in the 
sense of being close together. 

Comb and Face: Comb, pea, small, firmly and closely set upon head. 
Dubbed males deduct the full value of the comb. Face, rather coarse in 
texture. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, small, even, smooth in texture. 
Ear-lobes, small, smooth in texture. 

Neck: Medium in length, slightly arched; throat, full, dotted with 
small feathers. 

Wings: Short and muscular, closely folded; wing-fronts standing out 
prominently from body at shoulders; wing-points, slightly rounded at ex- 

233 



234 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

treme ends when folded, closely tucked at ends and held on a line with 
lower tail-coverts. 

Back: Medium in length, top line of back slightly convex, sloping 
downward from base of neck to tail, and slightly sloping from each side 
of back bone, well filled in at base of neck; hip-bones very wide apart; very 
broad across the shoulders, carrying its width well back to a line with the 
thighs, showing good width between wings and then narrowing to tail. 

Tail: Short and closely folded, carried slightly drooping. 

Breast: Broad and deep, well rounded at sides, projecting beyond 
wing-fronts when specimen is standing erect. 

Body and Stern: Body, well rounded at sides; keel, long and 
straight. Stern, well tucked up. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, round, muscular, set 
well apart; shanks, short and stout in bone. Toes, long, strong and 
straight, well spread. Shanks below hocks, and toes, free from feathers 
and down. 

Plumage: Short, narrow and close. 

Station and Carriage: Station, low; carriage, erect, upright, 
indicating great vigor. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Short, deep and broad, the crown projecting over the eyes, 
indicating great vigor and strong constitution. 

Beak: Well curved. 

Eyes: Full, with bold and fearless expression, not sunken in the 
sense of being close together. 

Comb and Face : Comb, pea, small, and closely set upon head. Face, 
rather coarse in texture. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, small, even; smooth in texture. 
Ear-lobes, small, smooth in texture. 

Neck: Medium in length, slightly arched; throat, full, dotted with 
small feathers. 

Wings: Short and muscular, closely folded; wing-fronts, standing out 
prominently from body at shoulders; wing- points, slightly rounded at ex- 
treme ends when folded, closely tucked at ends and held on a line with 
lower tail-coverts. 

Back: Medium in length; top line of back slightly convex, sloping 
downward from base of neck to tail, and slightly sloping from each side 
of back bone; well filled in at base of neck, hip-bones very wide apart; 
very broad across the shoulders, carrying its width well back to a line with 
the thighs showing good width between wings and then narrowing to tail. 

Tail: Short and closely folded, carried slightly drooping. 

Breast: Broad and deep, well rounded at sides, projecting beyond 
wing-fronts when specimen is standing erect. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 235 

Body and Stern: Body, well rounded at sides; keel, long and 
straight. Stern, well tucked up. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, round, muscidar, set 
well apart; shanks, short and stout. Toes, long, strong and straight, 
well spread. Shanks, below hocks, and toes, free from feathers and 
down. 

Plumage: Short, narrow and close. 

Body in Hand: Firm, compact, muscular. 

Station and Carriage: Station, low; carriage, erect, upright, in- 
dicating great vigor. 



DARK CORNISH. 

Disn u edification s. 

Combs other than pea or irregular pea; solid whi e, blue or black 
shanks. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Greenish-black. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Yellow, approaching pearl. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Hackle, lustrous greenish-black; shafts, red; plumage, other 
than hackle, lustrous greenish-black, shafts, red. 

Wings: Wing-fronts, greenish- black; wing-bows, lustrous greenish- 
black and dark red intermixed, the black greatly predominating; coverts, 
forming wing-bars, lustrous greenish- black; primaries, black, except a 
narrow edging of bay on outer web; secondaries, upper web black, lower 
web one-third black next to shaft, the remainder bay. 

Back: Lustrous greenish-black and dark red intermixed, the black 
greatly predominating; saddle feathers, like back in color, but with a 
somewhat larger proportion of dark red. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, lustrous greenish- black. 

Breast: Lustrous greenish-black. 

Body and Stern: Black. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black; shanks and toes, yellow. 

Under-Color: Dark slate. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, greenish-black. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Yellow, approaching pearl. 



236 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




DARK CORNISH MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



237 




DARK CORNISH FEMALE 



238 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Bright red. 

Neck: Hackle, lustrous black, with bay shaft to each feather; plum- 
age, other than hackle, bay, approaching mahogany, each feather having 
two pencilings of lustrous black, the pencilings following contour of web of 
feathers. 

Wings: Primaries, black, except a narrow edging of irregularly 
penciled bay upon outer part of web; secondaries, upper web black, lower 
web black next to shaft of feather, with a broad margin of irregularly pen- 
ciled bay; wing- bows and coverts, bay, approaching mahogany, each 
feather having two pencilings of lustrous black, the pencilings following 
contour of web of feather. 

Back: Bay, approaching mahogany. 

Tail: Main feathers, black, except the two upper feathers which 
are irregularly penciled with bay; coverts, bay, approaching mahogany, 
each feather having two pencilings of lustrous black, the pencilings follow- 
ing contour of web of feather. 

Breast: Bay, approaching mahogany, each feather having two pen- 
cilings of lustrous black, the pencilings following contour of web of feather. 

Body and Stern: Body, bay, approaching mahogany, each feather 
having two pencilings of lustrous black, the pencilings following contour 
of web of feather. Stern, black, or black tinged with bay. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, black, more or less penciled with bay, 
shanks and toes, yellow. 

WHITE CORNISH. 

Disqualifications. 

Combs other than pea or irregular pea; red, buff or positive black in 
any part of plumage; solid green or white shanks. (See general disquali- 
fications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Yellow, approaching pearl. 
Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 
Shanks and Toes: Yellow. 
Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 239 

WHITE-LACED RED CORNISH. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 8 lbs. Hen 6 lbs. 

Cockerel 7 lbs. Pullet 5 lbs. 

Disqualifications. 

Combs other than pea or irregular pea; solid white, blue or black 
shanks. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Rich, bright red, each feather tipped with white. 

Beak: Bright yellow. 

Eyes: Yellow, or approaching pearl. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Bright, rich red, each feather laced with silvery white; under- 
color, snow white. 

Wings: Wing-fronts, wing-bows and shoulders, bright, rich red, each 
feather regularly and accurately laced with a narrow lacing of silvery white; 
coverts, bright, rich red, forming wing-bars, accurately laced with white; 
primaries, bright, rich red, ending with white and well up on lower edge; 
secondaries, bright, rich red, with well-defined, accurate lacings of white; 
flight -coverts, red, laced with white; under-color, snow white. 

Back: Bright, rich red, each feather ending with silvery white ap- 
proaching the letter "V" in shape; saddle feathers prominent, each feather 
laced with silvery white, the texture of the feather giving a ray appearance; 
under-color, snow white. 

Tail: White, with shaft and extreme center, red; sickles and coverts, 
white, with red shaft and center. 

Breast: Bright, rich red, each feather laced with a narrow lacing 
of white, regular and accurate, following shape of web to fluff; under- 
color, snow white. 

Body and Fluff: Bright, rich red, each feather regularly and ac- 
curately laced with a narrow lacing of white, throughout; under-color, 
snow white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, bright, rich red, each feather accurately 
laced with white; under-color white; shanks and toes, a strong, bright 
yellow. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Bright, rich red, each feather laced with white. 

Beak: Bright yellow. 

Eyes: Yellow, or approaching pearl. 



240 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




WHITE-LACED RED CORNISH MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



241 




WHITE-LACED RED CORNISH FEMALE 



242 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: Bright, rich red, each feather accurately laced with white; 
under-color, snow white. 

Wings: Bright, rich red, with wing-bows, wing-fronts, shoulders 
and wing-bars accurately laced with a narrow lacing of white; primaries, 
bright, rich red ending with white and well up on lower edge; secondaries, 
bright, rich red, with well-defined, accurate lacings of white; under-color, 
snow white. 

Back: Bright, rich red throughout, with each feather from cape to 
tail, regularly and accurately laced, with a narrow white lacing conforming 
perfectly to shape of feather and free from mossings or barrings; under- 
color, snow white. 

Tail: Red, each feather laced with white, the white being wider at 
extremity of feather. 

Breast: Bright, rich red, with each feather regularly and accurately 
laced with a narrow lacing of white conforming perfectly to shape of 
feather, free from mossings or barrings; under-color, snow white. 

Body and Fluff: Bright, rich red, each feather accurately laced with 
white; under-color, snow white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, red, each feather accurately laced with 
white; under-color, snow white; shanks and toes, a bright, strong yellow. 



BLACK SUMATRAS. 

Disq ualifications. 

Combs other than pea; white ear-lobes; feathers other than black in 
any part of plumage. (See general disqualifications.) 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Symmetry 10 

Condition 10 

Comb — Shape 3, Color 3 

Head and Beak — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Eyes — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Ear-Lobes and Wattles 2 

Neck — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Tail — Shape 7, Color 5 12 

Breast — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Body and Stern — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Legs and Toes — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Length of Feathers 4 

100 
SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Short and round. 

Beak: Of medium length, strong, well curved. 

Eyes: Large and bold. 
^Comb: Pea, small. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Very small. 

Neck: Rather long, well arched; hackle, long, flowing. 

Wings: Long, large, carried with fronts slightly raised; points of 
feathers folded closely together, not drooping and not carried over the back. 

Back: Of medium length, broad at shoulders, slightly narrowing to 
tail, with very long, flowing saddle feathers. 

Tail: Long, drooping, carried at an angle of thirty degrees above the 
horizontal, with abundance of feathers and coverts which should be long 
and flowing. 

Breast: Broad, full. 

Body and Stern: Body, firm, muscular, tapering to tail. Stern, 
compact. 

243 



244 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, large, strong; shanks, 
rather short, standing well apart. Toes, long, straight, and well spread. 
Shanks below hocks, and toes, free from feathers and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Short and round. 

Beak: Of medium length, strong, well curved. 

Eyes: Large and bold. 

Comb: Pea, small. 

Wattles and Ear-Loees: Very small. 

Neck: Rather long; hackle, long. 

Wings: Long, large; points not drooping and not carried over the 
back. 

Back: Of medium length, broad at shoulders, slightly narrowing to 
tail. 

Tail: Long, large, drooping, carried at an angle of thirty degrees 
above the horizontal. 

Breast: Broad, round, full. 

Body and Stern: Body, firm, muscular, tapering to tail. Stern, 
compact. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, large, strong; shanks, 
rather short, standing well apart. Toes, well spread. Shanks below 
hocks, and toes, free from feathers and down. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Dark olive or leaden-black. 
Eyes: Dark brown. 
Comb and Face: Purple. 
Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Dark red. 
Legs and Toes: Dark olive or leaden-black. 
* Plumage: Very lustrous greenish-black throughout. 



BLACK-BREASTED RED MALAYS. 

Disq ualifications. 

Single or lopped combs; shanks or feet other than yellow in color; duck 
feet. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 9 lbs. Hen 7 lbs. 

Cockerel 7 lbs. Pullet 5 lbs. 

STANDARD HEIGHTS. 

Cock 26 in. Hen 18 in. 

Cockerel 18 in. Pullet 15 in. 

SCALE OE POINTS. 

Station 10 

Weight and Height 12 

Condition 8 

Head, Beak and Eyes — Shape 5, Color (i 11 

Comb 6 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes 4 

Neck — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — Shape 2, Color 3 5 

Tail — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Breast — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Body and Stern — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Thighs and Shanks — Shape 3, Color 3 (5 

Feet 2 

Hardness of Feather — Condition 3, Hardness 3 

100 
SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head : Broad, long, crown heavy and projecting over the eyes, giving 
a fierce, cruel expression. 

Beak: Thick, short, strong. 
Eyes: Large, clear. 

245 



246 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Comb: Rather small, resembling a strawberry or knob in front; set 
well forward. If males are dubbed, deduct six points. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Very small. 

Neck: Long, nearly straight and upright; hackle, short, scanty. 

Wings: Of medium length, large, strong, bony, very prominent at 
shoulders, carried compactly against sides; wing-points resting under 
saddle feathers, without drooping or being carried over back. 

Back: Long, slanting, rather convex in outline, tapering to tail, large 
and broad at shoulders; saddle, narrow, drooping; saddle feathers, short, 
scanty. 

Tail: Of medium length, drooping, well folded together; sickle 
feathers curved, but not long. 

Breast: Broad, full; breast-bone, deep, prominent. 

Body and Stern: Body, firm, muscular, broad at intersection of 
shoulders, tapering toward tail. Stern, well tucked up. 

Thighs and Shanks: Thighs, long, hard, round, set well apart. 
Shanks, long. 

Feet: Flat, broad; toes, well apart, long, straight. Shanks and toes 
free from feathers and down. 

Hardness of Feather: Feathers, short, lying close, hard, firm and 
strong. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Broad, long, crown heavy and projecting over the eyes, giving 
a fierce, cruel expression. 

Beak: Thick, short, strong; face and throat bare of feathers. 

Eyes: Large, clear. 

Comb: Rather small, resembling a strawberry or knob in front; set 
well forward. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Very small. 

Neck: Long, nearly straight and upright; hackle, short. 

Wings: Of medium length, large, strong, bony, very prominent at 
shoulders, carried compactly against sides; wing- points resting under 
saddle feathers, without drooping or being carried over back. 

Back: Long, slanting, rather convex in outline, tapering to tail, large 
and broad at shoulders. 

Tail: Of medium length, carried slightly drooping, well folded. 

Breast: Broad, full; breast-bone, deep, prominent. 

Body and Stern: Body, firm, muscular, broad at intersection of 
shoulders, tapering toward tail. Stern, well tucked up. 

Thighs and Shanks: Thighs, long, hard, round, set well apart. 
Shanks, long, bony, strong, standing evenly apart; scales smooth. 

Feet: Flat, broad; toes, well apart, long, straight. Shanks and toes 
free from feathers and down. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 247 

Hardness of Feather: Feathers short, lying close, hard, firm, 
strong. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Plumage, red or maroon. 

Beak: Yellow, or yellow striped with horn. 

Eyes: Pearl, yellow or daw. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Eak-Lobes: Rich red or purplish. 

Neck: Plumage, other than hackle, black; hackle, dark red, shading 
into reddish-maroon. 

Wings: Wing-fronts, black; wing- bows, a rich, glossy, dark red; 
coverts, glossy greenish-black, forming a wide bar across the wings; pri- 
maries, black, outer edge rich bay; secondaries, part of outer web forming 
wing-bay, rich bay, the remainder of feathers black. 

Back: Rich, glossy, dark red or maroon; saddle feathers, rich, dark 
red. 

Tail: Black; sickle feathers and tail coverts, ricn, glossy greenish- 
black. 

Breast: Glossy black. 

Body and Stern: Black. 

Thighs and Shanks: Thighs, black. Shanks and feet, yellow. 

Under-Color: Slate, tinged with brown. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: Plumage, dark brown. 

Beak: Yellow, or yellow and horn. 

Eyes: Pearl, yellow or daw. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Rich red or purplish. 

Neck: Plumage, other than hackle, cinnamon-brown; hackle, dark 
brown, or brown striped with black. 

Wings: Wing- fronts, wing-bows, coverts and secondaries, brown; 
primaries, very dark brown. 

Back: Dark or cinnamon-brown, not infrequently penciled. 

Tail: Very dark brown or black. 

Breast: Cinnamon-brown, not infrequently penciled. 

Body and Stern: Brown. 

Thighs and Shanks: Thighs, brown. Shanks and feet, yellow. 

Under-Color: Slate, tinged with brown. 



BLACK-BREASTED RED MALAY 
BANTAMS. 

Disqualifications. 

Same as for large Malays; also, cocks weighing over 30 ounces, hens 
over 28 ounces, cockerels over 28 ounces, pullets over 26 ounces. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 26 oz. Hen 24 oz. 

Cockerel 24 oz. Pullet 22 oz. 

SHAPE AND COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

The general shape and color of Black-Breasted Red Malay Bantams 
shall be the same as those of the standard-size Malays. 



248 



Class X. 

ORNAMENTAL BANTAMS. 

Breeds Varieties 

Sebrights ( Golden 

\ Silver 

Rose-Comb ( White 

\ Black 

Booted White 

Brahma ( Light 

(Dark 

| Buff 

Cochin J P 31- * 1 ^ 

^ OCH1N S White 

( Black 

C Black Tailed 

Japanese s White 

( Black 

f Bearded White 

Polish -j Buff Laced 

( Non-Bearded 



249 



ORNAMENTAL BANTAMS. 

Ornamental Bantams are bred chiefly for pleasure and fancy, but 
thev possess many useful qualities as well, being, as a rule, good layers 
^ and valuable as sitters; in fact, Cochin Bantam hens are used to hatch 
the eggs of Pheasants and other fowls under domestication. Among 
ornamental bantams the Cochin and Brahma Bantams are miniatures 
of the large Cochins and Brahmas in shape and color; the Black and White 
Rose-Combs are counterparts of the graceful and stylish Hamburgs, 
carrying, however, wings and tails somewhat larger in proportion to the 
body. They are the embodiment of grace, style and sprightliness. 
> Sebright Bantams, were originated in England by the late Sir John 

. Sebright and were the result of thirty years of painstaking care in mating 
and breeding. They are, perhaps, the greatest achievement of the 
fancier's art in producing birds of both sexes that are marvels of diminu- 
tive size and laced feathers in all sections. The feathers in both male and 
female are laced exactly alike. The low carriage of wings and well- 
spread tail give to these beautiful birds a most distinctive and striking ap- 
pearance. 

The Japanese Bantams are one of the curiosities of the Bantam class. 
The disproportionately large comb, face, wings and tail (of the male), 
and remarkable shortness of legs are the chief characteristics. The tail 
is distinguished by the long, sword-shaped sickles, that are carried forward 
and upright to an unusual degree. 

Polish Bantams should be the same in shape, style and plumage as 
the large varieties of Polish. 

The White Booted are distinct from the White Cochin Bantams in the 
possession of an abundance of stiff feathers, pronounced vulture-hocks, 
and an upright and sprightly carriage. 



250 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 251 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR SEBRIGHT AND 
ROSE-COMB BANTAMS. 

Symmetry 4 

Weight 4 

Condition 4 

Comb 8 

Head — Shape 2, Color 2 . 4 

Beak — Shape 2. Color 2 4 

Eye — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Neck — Shape 3, Color4 7 

Wings — Shape 5, Color 5 10 

Back — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Tail — Shape 6, Color 6 12 

Breast — Shape 5, Color 4 !) 

Body and Fluff — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Legs and Toes — Shape 3, Color 3 

100 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR BOOTED WHITE, BRAHMA, ALL 
COCHIN AND JAPANESE BANTAMS. 

Symmetry 8 

Weight . ! 6 

Condition 6 

Comb 8 

Head — Shape 3, Color 3 (> 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes 

Neck — Shape 4, Color 6 10 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Tail — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Breast — Shape 5, Color 5 10 

Body and Fluff — Shape 5, Color 3 8 

Legs and Toes j 8 

100 



SEBRIGHT BANTAMS. 

Disqualifications. 

Combs other than rose; absence of spike; cocks or cockerels having 
hackle feathers extending over shoulders or sickle feathers extending more 
than an inch and a half beyond tail proper; shanks other than slaty-blue 
in color; cocks weighing over 30 ounces; hens weighing over 26 ounces; 
cockerels weighing over 26 ounces; pullets weighing over 24 ounces. (See 
general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 26 oz. Hen 22 oz. 

Cockerel 22 oz. Pullet 20 oz. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Large, round in front and carried well back. 

Beak: Short, slightly curved. 

Eyes: Large, round. 

Comb: Rose, square in front, firm and even on head, terminating at 
rear in a spike which inclines upward very slightly; top covered with 
small points. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, broad, well rounded. Ear- 
lobes, flat. 

Neck: Tapering, well arched, carried very far back; hen-feathered, 
free from true hackle feathers. 

Wings: Large, carried low, but not so low as to conceal hocks. 

Back: Very short, free from saddle hangers. 

Tail: Full, well expanded, carried at an angle of seventy degrees 
from the horizontal, very high, free from sickles; feathers, broadest toward 
the ends, the two upper, which may be slightly curved, not extending more 
than an inch and a half beyond others; coverts, straight, round at ends 
and lying close to sides of tail. 

Breast: Full, round, carried prominently forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, compact, deep, short. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, very short and stout; shanks, short, rather 
slender. Toes, straight. Shanks below hock, and toes, free from feath- 
ers and down. 

252 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 253 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Broad and well rounded. 

Beak: Short, slightly curved. 

Eyes: Large, round. 

Comb : Rose, similar to that of male, but very small. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, small, well rounded. Ear- 
lobes, flat, small. 

Neck: Tapering, upright. 

Wings: Large, carried low, but not so low as to conceal hocks. 

Back: Short, tapering to tail. 

Tail: Full, well expanded, carried at an angle of seventy degrees 
from the horizontal. 

Breast: Full, round, carried prominently forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, compact, deep, short. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, very short, stout; shanks, short, rather 
slender. Toes, straight. Shanks below hocks, and toes, free from feath- 
ers and down. 

GOLDEN SEBRIGHT BANTAMS. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Brown. 

Comb and Face: Reddish-purple. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, bright red. Ear-lobes, reddish- 
purple. 

Shanks and Toes : Slaty-blue. 

Plumage: Surface throughout, golden yellow, each feather evenly 
and distinctly laced all around with a narrow edging of lustrous black. 
Under-color, slate. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Brown. 

Comb and Face: Reddish-purple. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, bright red. Ear-lobes, reddish- 
purple. 

Shanks and Toes: Slaty-blue. 

Plumage: Surface throughout, golden yellow, each feather evenly 
and distinctly laced all around with a narrow edging of lustrous black. 
Under-color, slate. 



254 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




SILVER SEBRIGHT BANTAM MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 255 




SILVER SEBRIGHT BANTAM FEMALE 



256 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

SILVER SEBRIGHT BANTAMS. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Brown. 

Comb and Face: Reddish-purple. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, bright red. Ear-lobes, reddish- 
purple. 

• Shanks and Toes: Slaty-blue. 

Plumage: Surface throughout, silvery white, each feather evenly and 
distinctly laced all around with a narrow edging of lustrous black. Under- 
color, slate. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Dark horn. 

Eyes: Brown. 

Comb and Face: Reddish-purple. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, bright red. Ear-lobes, reddish- 
purple. 

Shanks and Toes: Slaty-blue. 

Plumage: Surface throughout, silvery white, each feather evenly 
and distinctly laced all around with a narrow edging of lustrous black. 
Under-color, slate. 



ROSE-COMB BANTAMS. 

D ^qualifications. 

Combs other than rose; absence of spike; cocks weighing over 28 
ounces; hens weighing over 24 ounces; cockerels weighing over 24 ounces; 
pullets weighing over 22 ounces. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 26 oz. Hen 22 oz. 

Cockerel 22 oz. Pullet 20 oz. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Small, round, carried well backward over the body. 

Beak: Short, slightly curved. 

Eyes: Full. 

Comb: Rose, square in front, firm and even on head, terminating at 
rear in spike which inclines upward very slightly; top covered with small 
points. 

Wattles axd Ear-Lobes: Wattles, broad, thin, well rounded. 
Ear-lobes, prominent, flat, round, smooth, even, fitting closely to head. 

Neck: Tapering, carried back so as to bring head toward tail; 
hackle, full, long, descending well over shoulders. 

Wings: Large, points carried low, but not to conceal hocks; second- 
aries, slightly expanded. 

Back: Very short, tapering to tail; saddle feathers, abundant, long. 

Tail: Full, well expanded, carried at an angle of forty degrees from 
the horizontal; sickles, long, well curved; coverts, abundant. 

Breast: Full, round, carried prominently forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, plump, tapering toward tail. Fluff, short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short; shanks, short, smooth, tapering. 
Toes, straight. Shanks and toes free from feathers and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Small, round. 
Beak: Short, slightly curved. 
Eyes: Full. 

Comb: Rose, similar to that of male, but smaller. 

257 



258 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




ROSE-COMB BLACK BANTAM MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



259 




ROSE-COMB BLACK BANTAM FEMALE 



2G0 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, small, thin, well rounded. Ear- 
lobes, prominent, flat, round, smooth, even, fitting closely to head. 

Neck: Short, tapering, carried well back. 

Wings: Large, points carried low, but not to conceal hocks. 

Back: Short, tapering to tail. 

Tail: Full, well expanded. Carried at an angle of forty degrees 
from the horizontal. 

Breast: Full, round, carried prominently forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, compact, tapering toward tail. Fluff, 
short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short; shanks, smooth, short, tapering. 
Toes, straight. Shanks and toes free from feathers and down. 

ROSE-COMB WHITE BANTAMS. 

Disqualifications. 

Feathers other than white in any part of plumage; shanks other than 
white. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: White. 
Eyes: Reddish-bay. 
Comb and Face: Bright red. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, bright red. Ear-lobes, white. 
Shanks and Toes: White, with pinkish tinge on back of shanks and 
between scales. 

Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure white. 

ROSE-COMB BLACK BANTAMS. 

Disqualifications. 

Pure white in any part of plumage, extending over half an inch, or 
two or more feathers tipped or edged with positive white. Shanks other 
than black or very dark leaden-blue. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: Black. 
Eyes: Brown. 

Comb and Face: Bright red. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, bright red. Ear-lobes, white. 
Shanks and Toes: Black. 
Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish-black throughout. 



BOOTED WHITE BANTAMS. 

Disqualifications. 

Feathers other than white in any part of plumage; absence of vulture- 
hocks; shanks not feathered down the outer sides, shanks other than white; 
outer toes not feathered; cocks weighing over 28 ounces; hens weighing 
over 24 ounces; cockerels weighing over 24 ounces; pullets weighing over 
22 ounces. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 26 oz. Hen 22 oz. 

Cockerel 22 oz. Pullet 20 oz. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Small, round, carried well back. 

Beak: Short, slightly curved. 

Eyes: Full. 

Comb, Wattles axd Ear-Lobes: Comb, single, of medium size, firm 
and straight on head, evenly serrated. Wattles, broad, thin, well rounded. 
Ear-lobes, flat. 

Neck: Tapering, curved well back, with full, long hackle, descend- 
ing well over shoulders. 

Wings: Large, points carried a little low. 

Back: Short; saddle feathers, abundant, long. 

Tail: Full, well expanded, very upright; sickles, long, well curved; 
coverts, abundant, long. 

Breast: Full, round. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rather short and compact. Fluff, mod- 
erately full. 

Le&s and Toes: Thighs, long, well furnished with long, stiff feathers 
or vulture-hocks which almost touch the ground; shanks, long, heavilv 
feathered on the outer sides. Toes, straight, outer toes heavily feathered 
to their extremities. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 
Head: Small, round. 
Beak: Short, slightly curved. 
Eyes: Full. 

261 



262 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Comb: Single, small, firm and straight on head, evenly serrated. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Wattles, small, well rounded. Ear- 
lobes, flat. 

Neck: Of medium length, tapering, carried well back. 

Wings: Large, points carried a little low. 

Back: Short. 

Tail: Full, well expanded, rather upright. 

Breast: Full, round. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rather short and compact. Fluff, moder- 
ately full. 

Legs and Toes : Thighs, long, well furnished with long, stiff feathers 
or vulture-hocks; shanks, long, heavily feathered on outer sides. Toes, 
straight, outer toes heavily feathered to their extremities. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: White. 
Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 
Shanks and Toes: White. 
Plumage: Pure white. 



BRAHMA BANTAMS. 

{Light and Dark.) 

Brahma Bantams, male and female, should conform in miniature 
fashion to the general outlines of the larger Brahmas. Stiff hock plumage 
is very objectionable. 

Disqualifications. 

Disqualifications for Brahma Bantams shall be the same as for larger 
Brahmas of the corresponding variety. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 30 oz. Hen 26 oz. 

Cockerel 26 oz. Pullet 24 oz. 

DISQUALIFYING WEIGHTS. 

Cock !U oz. Hen .SO oz. 

Cockerel 30 oz. Pullet 28 oz. 

SHAPE AND COLOR, MALE AND FEMALE. 

The general shape and color of Brahma Bantams ahall conform to 
the description of the corresponding variety of the larger Brahmas. 



263 



264 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BUFF COCHIN BANTAM MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



205 




BUFF COCHIN BANTAM FEMALE 



266 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BLACK COCHIN BANTAM MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



267 




BLACK COCHIN BANTAM FEMALE 



COCHIN BANTAMS. 

The Cochin Bantam male should conform in miniature fashion to the 
general outlines of the larger Cochin. He should be broad, deep, plump, 
and well rounded, of bold and forward carriage, short in legs, head carried 
not much higher than tail. Plumage, long, loose and abundant, the more 
fluff plumage the better; stiff hock plumage is objectionable. The Cochin 
Bantam female should conform, in a feminine way, with the male. In 
general outlines she should be rather short, neat and well rounded, very 
profuse of feathering and short in leg. Stiff hock plumage is objectionable. 

Disqualifications. 

The disqualifications for all Cochin Bantams shall be the same as 
for larger Cochins of the corresponding variety, except as to hock plumage. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 30 oz. Hen 2<> <>/,. 

Cockerel 26 oz. Pullet 24 oz. 

DISQUALIFYING WEIGHTS. 

Cock 34 oz. Hen 30 oz. 

Cockerel 30 oz. Pullet 28 oz. 

SHAPE AND COLOR, MALE AND FEMALE. 

The general shape and color of all Cochin Bantams shall conform to 
the description of the corresponding variety of the larger Cochins. 



268 



JAPANESE BANTAMS. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 26 oz. Hen 22 oz. 

Cockerel 22 oz. Pullet 20 oz. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head : Rather large and broad. 

Beak: Very strong, well curved. 

Eyes: Large. 

Comb: Single, large, firm and straight on head; evenly serrated, 
having five distinct points. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, large, pendent. Ear-lobes, 
large, smooth. 

Neck: Rather short, curving prominently backward, with abundant, 
hackle flowing well over shoulders. 

Wings: Large, long, points decidedly drooping. 

Back: Very short; saddle feathers, abundant. 

Tail: Very large, somewhat expanded, carried in so erect a position 
as to almost come in contact with back of head; sickles, long, very upright, 
very slightly curved. 

Breast: Very full, round, carried prominently forward. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rather short, deep and compact. Fluff, 
short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium size, short; shanks, very short, 
smooth. Toes, straight. Shanks and toes free from feathers and down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head : Rather large and broad. 

Beak: Strong, well curved. 

Eyes: Large. 

Comb: Single, large, firm and straight on head; evenly serrated, hav- 
ing five distinct points. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, of medium size, well rounded. 
Ear-lobes of medium size, smooth. 

Neck: Short, well curved. 

Wings: Large, long, points decidedly drooping. 

Back: Short. 

269 



270 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Tail: Large, carried fairly upright. 

Breast: Full, round, prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rather short, deep and compact. Fluff, 
short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium size, short; shanks, very short, 
smooth. Toes, straight. Shanks and toes free from feathers and down. 

BLACK-TAILED JAPANESE BANTAMS. 

D isq ucdifications. 

Combs other than single; shanks other than yellow; cocks weighing 
over 30 ounces; hens weighing over 26 ounces; cockerels weighing over 20 
ounces; pullets weighing over 24 ounces. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: White. 

Beak: Yellow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: White. 

Wings: Primaries, dark slate or black, edged with white; secondaries, 
dark slate or black, with wide edging of white on upper web, lower web 
white; coverts, white. The wing, when folded, shows white only. 

Back: White; saddle feathers, white. 

Tail: Black; sickles and coverts, black, edged with white. 

Breast: White. 

Body and Fluff: White. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white; shanks and toes, yellow. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Head: White. 

Beak: Yeilow. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Neck: White. 

Wings: Primaries, dark slate or black, edged with white; secondaries, 
dark slate or black with wide edging of white on upper web, lower web 
white; coverts, white. The wing when folded shows white only. 

Back: White. 

Tail: Black; coverts, white. Two top feathers edged with white. 

Breast: White. 

Body and Fluff: White. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white; shanks and toes, yellow. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 271 

WHITE JAPANESE BANTAMS. 

D isqualifications. 

Combs other than single; feathers other than white in any part of 
plumage; shanks other than yellow; cocks weighing over 30 ounces; hens 
weighing over 26 ounces; cockerels weighing over 20 ounces; pullets weigh- 
ing over 24 ounces. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: Yellow. 
Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 
Shanks and Toes: Yellow. 
Plumage: Pure white. 

BLACK JAPANESE BANTAMS. 

Disqualifications. 

Combs other than single; pure white in any part of plumage extending 
over half an inch, or two or more feathers tipped or edged with positive 
white; shanks other than yellow or yellowish-black; cocks weighing over 
30 oimces; hens weighing over 26 ounces; cockerels weighing over 26 
ounces; pullets weighing over 24 ounces. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Yellow, or yellow shaded with black. 

Eyes: Brown. 

Comb, Face, Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: Yellow, or yellow shaded with black. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous greenish-black throughout. 



272 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BLACK-TAILED JAPANESE BANTAM MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 273 




BLACK-TAILED JAPANESE BANTAM FEMALE 



POLISH BANTAMS. 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Symmetry 4 

Size 4 

Condition 4 

Comb 2 

Head — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Crest — Shape 12, Color 8 20 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes 4, Beard 4 8 

Neck — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Back — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Tail — ■ Shape 5, Color 5 10 

Breast — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Bodyand Fluff — Shape 3, Color3 6 

Legs and Toes — Shape 3, Color 3 (5 

100 
STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 26 oz. Hen 22 oz. 

Cockerel 22 oz. Pullet 20 oz. 

SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Large, with a considerable protuberance on top of skull. 

Beak: Rather long. 

Nostrils: Large, with crown elevated above ordinary curve of beak. 

Eyes: Large, full. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, V-shaped, having two prongs of small 
size — the smaller the better — retreating into crest; natural absence of 
same not to be considered a defect. Crest, very large, thick, flowing, well 
fitted on crown of head, rising well in front so as not to obstruct the sight, 
and falling over on both sides and at rear in a regular, even mass, com- 
posed of feathers similar in shape and texture to those of hackle. 

Beard: In bearded varieties, thick, full, extending back to crest. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, thin, pendulous, well rounded 
on lower edges. Ear-lobes, small, even in surface, almond-shaped. 

Neck: Of medium length, slightly arched, with abundant hackle 
flowing well over shoulders. 

274 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 275 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Straight, wide across the shoulders, tapering to tail; saddle 
feathers, abundant. 

Tail: Large, well expanded, carried at an angle of forty-five degrees 
from the horizontal; sickles and coverts, well curved, abundant. 

Breast: Round, deep, full, prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, full, comparatively wide at shoulders, 
tapering from front to rear. Fluff, rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length and size; shanks, of 
medium length. Toes, straight. Shanks and toes free from feathers and 
down. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Similar to that of the male, but smaller. 

Beak : Rather long. 

Nostrils: Large, with crown elevated above ordinary curve of beak. 

Eyes: Large, full, bright. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, V-shaped, having two prongs of small 
size — the smaller the better — retreating into crest, natural absence of 
same not to be considered a defect. Crest, very large, round, even on head. 

Beard: In bearded varieties, thick, full, extending back to crest. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, thin, small, well rounded on 
lower edges. Ear-lobes, small, even in surface, rounded on lower edges. 

Neck: Of medium length, tapering, with hackle flowing well over 
shoulders. 

Wings: Large, well folded. 

Back: Straight, broadest at shoulders, tapering to tail. 

Tail: Large, broad, well expanded, carried at an angle of forty-five 
degrees from the horizontal. 

Breast: Round, full, prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, full, widest at shoulders, tapering from 
front to rear. Fluff, rather short. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length and size; shanks, of 
medium length. Toes, straight. Shanks and toes free from feathers and 
down. 



276 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BEARDED WHITE POLISH BANTAMS. 

Disqualifications. 

Combs other than V-shaped; shanks other than blue or slaty-blue, 
except the natural fading from age; cocks weighing over 30 ounces; hens 
weighing over 26 ounces; cockerels weighing over 26 ounces; pullets weigh- 
ing over 24 ounces. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Beak: Slaty-blue. 
Eyes: Reddish-bay. 
Comb and Face: Bright red. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, red. Ear-lobes, bluish-white. 
Shanks and Toes: Blue, or slaty-blue. 
Plumage: Web, fluff and quills of feathers in all sections, pure white. 

BUFF LACED POLISH BANTAMS. 

Disqualifications. 

Shanks other than blue or slaty-blue, except the natural fading from 
age. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Beak: Slaty-blue. 

Eyes: Reddish-bay. 

Comb and Face: Bright red. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, bright red. Ear-lobes, white. 

Crest: Rich buff, laced with pale buff. 

Beard: Rich buff, laced with pale buff. 

Head: Rich buff, ticked with pale buff. 

Neck: Rich buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Wings: Wing-bows, rich buff, laced with pale buff. Primaries, 
buff, the outer end having an edging of pale buff. Secondaries, rich buff, 
with a well-defined pale buff lacing. Coverts, rich buff, each feather laced 
with pale buff, widest at ends, forming two well-defined wing-bars. 

Back : Rich buff, the end of each feather laced with pale buff. Saddle 
rich buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Tail: Buff. Sickles and coverts, buff, each feather laced with pale 
buff. 

Breast: Rich buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Body and Fluff: Body, rich buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 
Fluff, light buff. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 277 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, buff, laced with pale buff. Shanks and 
toes, slaty-blue. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Beak: Slaty-blue. 

Eyes: Reddish- bay. 

Comb and Face: Bright red. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes : Wattles, bright red. Ear-lobes, white. 

Crest: Buff, laced with pale buff. 

Beard: Buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Neck: Buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Wings: Bows, buff, laced with pale buff. Primaries, buff. Sec- 
ondaries, buff, with a well-defined lacing of pale buff. Coverts, buff, 
laced with pale buff, the pale buff growing wider at extremity, forming two 
well-defined wing-bars. 

Back: Buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Tail: Buff, each feather laced with pale buff, the pale buff being 
wider at outer end of feather. 

Breast: Buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 

Body and Fluff: Bodv, buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 
Fluff, light buff. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, buff, each feather laced with pale buff. 
Shanks and toes, slaty-blue. 

NON-BEARDED POLISH BANTAMS. 

The same as the bearded varieties in every respect, including disquali- 
fications, shape and color, except that they have no beard. (See general 
disqualifications.) 



Class XI. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Breeds rz 

Varieties 

? ILKIES White 

^ LTANS - • White 

Frizzles A „ , 

Any Color 



278 



SILKIES. 

Silkies derive their name from the peculiar formation of the plumage, 
their feathers being webless and of a silky texture. This peculiarity lends 
attractiveness to the breed, as it is possessed by no other Standard fowl. 
Their general appearance, short, feathered legs, broad backs and profuse 
plumage, are suggestive of the Cochin. The length of the webless feathers 
is a particularly desirable feature. The contrast formed by the white 
plumage and purple face is noticeable on account of its singularity; in fact, 
the appearance of these birds presents, throughout, a series of contra- 
dictions to the generally-accepted laws which govern Standard-bred fowls. 

D isqvalifications. 

Absence of crest or of fifth toe; feathers not truly silky; shanks not 
feathered down outer sides; vulture-hocks. (See general disqualifications.) 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Symmetry, 4 

Size 4 

Condition 4 

Head and Beak — Shape 3, Color .5 8 

Eye — Shape 1, Color 2 3 

Comb and Crest — Comb 5. Crest 10 15 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes 6 

Neck — Shape 4, Color 4 , 8 

Wings — - Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Back — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Tail — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Breast — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Body and Fluff — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Legs and Toes , 8 

Texture of Plumage 6 

loo 

SHAPE OF MALE. 
Head: Short, round. 
Beak: Short, stout. 
Eyes: Large. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, nearly round, cushion covered with small 

279 * 



280 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

corrugations set prominently and firmly on the head; crest, soft and full, 
as upright as comb will permit, falling gracefully backward. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, of medium length; concave 
from without inward, nearly semi-circular. Ear-lobes, oval. 

Neck: Short, with very full hackle flowing well over shoulders. 

Wings: Small, carried low, the primaries and secondaries have a 
ragged, fringe-like appearance and the ends are fairly covered by the 
saddle hangers. 

Back: Broad, short; saddle, rising gradually from about the middle 
of back toward tail. 

Tail: Small, main feathers having a ragged, fringe-like appear- 
ance. 

Breast: Full. 

Body and Fluff: Body, broad, squarely formed. Fluff, full and 
abundant. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, well furnished with silky fluff; 
shanks, short, feathered on outer sides with silky plumage. Toes, five 
on each foot, the outer toes feathered. 

Size: Cock should not weigh more than three pounds. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Small, short, round. 

Beak: Short, stout. 

Eyes: Large. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, similar to that of male, but very small. 
Crest, small, globular, erect. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, small. Ear-lobes, small and 
round. 

Neck: Short, with abundant hackle. 

Wings: Small, carried low; the primaries and secondaries have a 
ragged and fringe-like appearance and the ends are fairly covered by the 
saddle hangers. 

Back: Broad and short, rising in a concave sweep from middle back 
to a rounded cushion which extends to tail. 

Tail: Small, almost concealed by cushion and fluff; main tail feathers 
have a ragged, fringe-like appearance. 

Breast: Full. 

Body and Fluff: Body, broad, compact. Fluff, full, abundant. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, well furnished with silky fluff; 
shanks, short, feathered on outer sides with silky plumage. Toes, five 
on each foot, the outer toes feathered. 

Plumage: Soft, silky, webless. 

Size: Hens should not weigh more than two pounds. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 281 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Blue. 

Eyes: Black. 

Comb and Face: Purple. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Wattles, purple. Ear-lobes, turquoise 

blue. 

Shanks and Toes: Leaden-blue. 
Plumage: White. 



SULTANS. 

They have, for their most attractive characteristics, the novel features 
of a full crest, muff and beard, with vulture-hocks and profuse shank and 
toe feathering. These peculiarities should be most prominent in their 
form and outlines. 

Disqualifications. 

Beak other than white or pale flesh color; large, red face; absence 
of beard; absence of vulture-hocks; shanks not feathered down outer 
sides. (See general disqualifications.) 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Symmetry 4 

Size 4 

Condition 4 

Head — Shape 3, Color3 G 

Comb and Crest — Comb, 4, Crest 12 16 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes 4, Beard 8 12 

Neck — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Wings — Shape 3, Color3 6 

Back — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Tail — Shape 4, Color 4 8 

Breast — Shape 3, Color 3 (5 

Body and Fluff — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Legs and Toes 12 

100 
SHAPE OF MALE. 

Head: Medium size. 

Beak: Short, well curved. 

Nostrils: Large. 

Eyes: Oval. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, very small, having two spikes V-shaped. 
Crest, large, globular and compact. 

Beard: Very full, joining whiskers and extending to crest. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, small, round. Ear-lobes, small, 
round, concealed by crest and whiskers. 

Neck: Short, arched, carried well back. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 283 

Wings: Rather large, carried low. 

Back: Rather long and straight. 

Tail: Large, full, abundantly furnished with sickles and coverts. 

Breast: Deep and prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, very square, deep, compact, carried low. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, very short, well feathered, with long, full 
vulture-hocks; shanks, short, heavily feathered down outer sides. Toes, 
five upon each foot, straight, the middle and outer toes well feathered. 

Size: Cocks should weigh five pounds. 

SHAPE OF FEMALE. 

Head: Medium size. 

Beak: Short, well curved. 

Nostrils: Large. 

Eyes: Oval. 

Comb and Crest: Comb, very small, having two spikes, V-shaped. 
Crest, large, globular and compact. 

Beard: Very full, joining whiskers and extending to crest. 

Wattles and Ear- Lobes: Wattles, small, round. Ear-lobes, small, 
round, concealed by crest and whiskers. 

Neck: Short, arched, carried well back. 

Wings: Large, carried low. 

Back: Long and straight. 

Tail: Large, well expanded, rather erect. 

Breast: Deep and prominent. 

Body and Fluff: Body, very square, compact, carried low. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, very short, well feathered, with long, full 
vulture-hocks; shanks, short, heavily feathered down outer sides. Toes, 
five upon each foot, straight, outer and middle toes well feathered. 

Size: Hens should weigh four pounds. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Beak: Slaty- blue. 
Eyes: Reddish- bay. 

Comb and Face: Comb, bright red. Face, bright red, but covered 
by whiskers and almost invisible. 

Wattles and Ear-Lobes: Bright red. 

Shanks and Toes: Slaty-blue. 

Plumage: Web, quill and fluff of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



FRIZZLES. 

Disqualifications. 

Combs other than single; not matching in combs, in color of legs or 
in color of plumage when shown in pan:;, trio,'' or pens; wry tails; more than 
four toes. (See general disqualifications.) 

NO SCALE OF POINTS. 

MALE AND FEMALE. 

The feathers show a tendency to curve backward or upward at the 
ends, this curving at the ends being most noticeable in the hackle and 
saddle feathers, but the more all of the feathers are curved the better. 
Feathers curving upward on neck and back of head, after the style of the 
hood in hooded pigeons, to be encouraged. 

Color: Solid; black, white, red and bay admissible, provided the 
birds match when shown in pairs, trios and pens. 

Comb: Single. 



«8-i 



Class XII. 



TURKEYS. 

Varieties 
Bronze 
Narragansett 
White 

Turkeys •! Black 

Buff 
Slate 
Bourbon 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Symmetry 4 

Weight. 



15 

Condition 4 

Head 5 

Throat Wattle 5 

Neck — Shape 3, Color 3 6 

Wings — Shape 4, Color 8 12 

Back — Shape 4, Color 6 10 

Tail — Shape 4, Color8 12 

Breast — Shape 6, Color 5 11 

BodyandFluff — Shape6, Color 5 11 

Legs and Toes — Shape 3, Color 2 5 

loo 



285 



TURKEYS. 

The turkey male should be large in frame and deep in body, with a 
broad, round, full breast that varies in prominence according to the variety 
and gives the fowl a stately and majestic appearance. The head should 
be of good size, and the eyes possess an alert and bold expression. The 
legs and shanks must be large, straight, and well set. The outlines of all 
sections should be in perfect harmony. 

The turkey female should be large in frame and deep in body, with a 
broad, round, full breast, being similar in all sections to the male, except 
finer in structure. She, too, is stately in appearance. The head should 
be of good size, with a bright, watchful eye; the legs and shanks large, 
straight and well set, the outlines of each section conforming to those of 
the male, except in size. 

SHAPE OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Head: Long, broad, carunculated. 

Beak: Strong, curved, well set in head. 

Eyes: Bright, clear. 

Throat Wattle: Heavily carunculated. 

Neck: Long, curving backward toward tail. 

Beard: Long, bristly, prominent. 

Wings: Large, powerful, smoothly folded, carried well up on 
sides. 

Back : Broad, somewhat curving, rising from neck and descending in 
graceful curve to tail. 

Tail: Rather long. 

Breast: Broad, deep, full, well rounded. 

Body: Long, deep through the middle, finely rounded. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, long, stout; shanks, large, long, strong. 
Toes, straight, strong. 



286 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 287 

BRONZE TURKEYS. 

Disqualifications. 

White feathers in any part of plumage; wings showing one or more 
primary or secondary feathers clear black or brown, or absence of white or 
gray bars more than one- half the length of primaries; color of back, tail 
or tail-coverts clear black, brown or gray; crooked back; decidedly wry 
tail; adult cocks weighing less than 30 pounds; yearling cocks weighing less 
than 25 pounds; cockerels weighing less than 18 pounds; hens weighing 
less than 14 pounds; pullets weighing less than 10 pounds. (See general 
disqualifications.) 

Note. The following defects should be cut severely. Absence of one 
or more pirmary or secondary wing feathers. Absence of one or more 
center main tail feathers; white or gray bars showing on main tail 
feathers beyond coverts; absence of black bands on one or more of the 
large main tail coverts; decidedly wry wings; decidedly crooked breast 
bone. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Cock 36 lbs. Cockerel 2.3 lbs. 

Yearling Cock 33 lbs. Hen 20 lbs. 

Pullet lGlbs. 

When two specimens are both over Standard weight and equal in all 
other points, the one nearest Standard, weight shall win. 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Rich red, changeable to bluish-white. 

Beak: Light horn at tip, dark at base. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Throat Wattle: Rich red, changeable to bluish- white. 

Neck: Light, rich, brilliant bronze. 

Beard: Black. 

Wings: Bows, light, rich, brilliant bronze ending in a narrow band 
of black; primaries, each feather evenly and distinctly barred straight 
across with parallel bars of black and white throughout the length of 
feather; secondaries, dull black, evenly and regularly barred across with 
parallel bars of white, the more distinct the better, the color changing to a 
bronze brown as the middle of back is approached, and the white bars 
become less distinct, an edging of brown in secondaries being very objec- 
tionable; coverts, a beautiful, rich bronze, forming a beautiful, broad, 
bronze band across wings when folded, feathers terminate in a wide black 
band forming a glossy, ribbon-like mark which separates them from pri- 
maries and secondaries. Flight coverts, barred similar to primaries. x 



288 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




BRONZE TURKEY MALE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



289 




BRONZE TURKEY FEMALE 



290 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Back: From neck to middle of back, a light, rich, brilliant bronze, 
each feather terminating in a very narrow, black band extending across 
end; from middle of back to tail-coverts, black, each feather having 
a brilliant bronze band extending across it near the end. 

Tail: Dull black, each feather evenly and distinctly marked trans- 
versely with parallel lines of brown, each feather having a wide, black 
band extending across it near the end (the more bronze on this band the 
better), and terminating in a wide edging of white. Coverts, dull black, 
each feather evenly and distinctly marked transversely with parallel lines of 
brown, each feather having a wide, black and bronze band extending across 
it near the end, and terminating in a wide edging of white, the few larger 
coverts extending well out on tail, having little bronze on them. The 
more distinct the colors throughout the whole plumage, the better. 

Breast: Light, rich, brilliant bronze, feathers on lower part of breast, 
approaching the body, terminate in a black band extending across the end. 

Body and Fluff: Body, black, beautifully shaded with bronze, but 
not so decided nor so rich as breast. Fluff, black, each feather having a 
wide, brilliant bronze band extending across it near the end and ter- 
minating in a narrow edging of white. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, similar to breast, but less brilliant in shade; 
shanks and toes, in mature birds, pinkish; in young birds, dark, approach- 
ing black. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Plumage, similar to that of male, except an edging of white on feathers 
of back, wing-bows, wing-coverts, breast and body, which edging should 
be narrow in front, gradually widening as it approaches the rear. Beak, 
eyes, throat wattle, legs and toes same as male. 



NARRAGANSETT TURKEYS. 

D isqualifications. 

Buff or slate-colored feathers in any part of plumage; crooked back; 
decidedly wry tail; cocks weighing less than 22 pounds; hens weighing less 
than 14 pounds. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 30 lbs. Hen 18 lbs. 

Cockerel 20 lbs. Pullet 12 lbs. 

Yearling Cock 25 lbs. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 291 

COLOR OF MALE. 

Head: Rich red, changeable to bluish- white. 

Beak: Light horn. 

Eyes: Brown. 

Throat Wattle: Rich red, changeable to bluish-white. 

Neck: Upper part, black, each feather ending in a broad, steel-gray 
band. Lower part, black, each feather ending in a broad, steel-gray band, 
edged with black, the edging of black increasing as the body is approached. 

Beard: Black. 

WlNQS: Bows, metallic black, each feather ending with a band of 
steel-gray, edged with metallic black: primaries, each feather evenly and 
distinctly barred across with parallel bars of black and white; secondaries, 
marked similar to those of primaries, but less distinct and approaching a 
light gray; coverts, inside web, black or dark brown; outside web. a light 
steel-gray, approaching white, terminating in a metallic black band, form- 
ing a wide, steel-gray band across the wing when folded. 

Back: Rich, metallic black: saddle, black, each feather ending in a 
broad, steel-gray band, approaching white; the light band increasing as 
the tail-coverts are approached. 

Tail: Dull black, each feather regularly penciled with parallel lines 
of light brown, ending in a broad band of metallic black, edged with steel- 
gray, approaching white: coverts, dull black, each feather regularly penciled 
with parallel lines of light brown, ending in a band of metallic black, with 
a wide edging of light steel-gray approaching white. 

Breast: Metallic black, each feather ending in a broad, light, steel- 
gray band, edged with black. 

Body and Fluff: Body, metallic black, each feather ending in a 
broad, light, steel-gray band, edged with black. 

Legs axd Toes: Thighs, rich metallic black, each feather ending in 
a light, steel-gray band, edged with black: shanks and toes, deep salmon. 

COLOR OF FEMALE. 

Plumage: Similar to that of male, except back shall be metallic 
black, each feather ending in a broad band of light steel-gray approaching 
white; the color of the other sections being not so distinct as in the male, 
and the feathers terminating in an edging of lighter gray, approaching 
white. 



292 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

WHITE HOLLAND TURKEYS. 

Disqualifications. 

Feathers other than white in any part of plumage; crooked back; 
decidedly wry tail; color of legs other than white or pinkish- white; cocks 
weighing less than 20 pounds; hens weighing less than 12 pounds. (See 
general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 28 lbs. Hen 18 lbs. 

Cockerel 20 lbs. Pullet 14 lbs. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Head: Rich red, changeable to bluish- white. 
Beak: Pinkish, or flesh. 
Eyes: Dark brown. 

Throat Wattle: Rich red, changeable to bluish-white. 
Shanks and Toes: White, or pinkish- white. 

Plumage: Web, quill and fluff of feathers in all sections, pure white, 
except beard in male, which is deep black. 

BLACK TURKEYS. 

Disqualifications. 

Feathers other than black in any part of plumage; crooked back; 
decidedly wry tail; cocks weighing less than 20 pounds; hens weighing less 
than 12 pounds. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 27 lbs. Hen 18 lbs. 

Cockerel 18 lbs. Pullet 12 lbs. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Head: Rich red, changeable to bluish- white. 

Beak: Dark horn, or slaty-black. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Throat Wattle: Rich red, changeable to bluish- white. 

Shanks and Toes: Dark lead, or slaty-black. 

Plumage: Surface, lustrous, greenish-black throughout. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 293 

BUFF TURKEYS. 

D isqualificat ions. 

Crooked back; decidedly wry tail; cocks weighing less than 18 pounds; 
hens weighing less than 12 pounds. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 27 lbs. Hen 18 lbs. 

Cockerel 18 lbs. Pullet 12 lbs. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Head: Rich red, changeable to bluish-white. 

Beak: Bluish-white. 

Eyes: Dark hazel. 

Throat Wattle: Rich red, changeable to bluish-white. 

Shanks and Toes: Bluish- white, or flesh-color. 

Plumage : Pure buff, the wings being of a very light shade. 



SLATE TURKEYS. 

D isqualificat ions. 

Feathers other than slaty or ashy-blue (which may be dotted with 
black) in any part of plumage; crooked back; decidedly wry tail; cocks 
weighing less than 18 pounds; hens weighing less than 12 pounds. (See 
general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 27 lbs. Hen 18 lbs. 

Cockerel 18 lbs. Pullet 12 lbs. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

Head: Rich red, changeable to bluish- white. 
Beak: Light blue, dark blue, or horn. 
Eyes: Dark hazel. ^ 

Throat Wattle: Rich red, changeable to bluish-white. 
Shanks and Toes: Light, or dark blue. 

Plumage: Slaty, or ashy-blue, sometimes dotted with black, but the 
freer from dotting the better. 



294 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BOURBON RED TURKEYS. 

i 

From the most available authority to be found, the Bourbon Red 
Turkeys are an early native of Bourbon County, Kentucky, and are bred 
up from what, in early days, was called the Wild Yellow Turkey. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Cock 30 lbs. Hen 18 lbs. 

Cockerel 22 lbs. Pullet. 14 lbs. 

COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE. 
Head: Rich red, changeable to bluish- white. 
Beak: Light horn at the tip, darker at the base. 
Eyes: Dark brown. 

Throat Wattle: Rich red, changeable to bluish- white. 
Neck: Deep brownish-red. 

Wings: Bows, deep brownish-red; primaries and secondaries, white. 
Back: Deep brownish-red. 
Tail: White. 

Breast: Deep brownish-red. 

Body and Fluff: Body, deep brownish-red; fluff, brownish red. 
Legs and Toes: Thighs, deep brownish-red. Shanks and toes, 
reddish-pink. 



(lass XIII. 

DUCKS. 

Breeds Varieties 

Pekin White 

Aylesbury White 

Rouen Colored 

Cayuga Black 

CALL {white 

East India Black 

Crested White 

Muscovy j ^ored 

( White 

Indian Runner 

Swedish Blue 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR ALL DUCKS EXCEPT INDIAN 
RUNNER AND CRESTED WHITE. 

Symmetry 5 

W T eight* 18 

Condition 6 

Head 4 

Beak 4 

Eyes 4 

Neck 5 

Wings 5 

Back 12 

Tail 3 

Breast 1 J 

Body 15 

Legs and Toes j * 

100 

*For weight, read, " sinallness of size" in applying the scale to Call and East Indian Ducks. 



295 



DUCKS. 

The most popular ducks are those whose size gives them a marketable 
value as table poultry. The male and female Pekin, Aylesbury, Rouen 
and Cayuga Ducks should be large, long and broad in body, full in breast, 
with deep, well-set keels and all sections finely rounded, giving them a 
finished, plump appearance. The nearer they are bred to Standard 
weights the better. The head should be large, the bill broad and long on 
upper line, and the eyes bright. The neck should be of good length and 
well arched. 

The body of White and Colored Muscovys should be long, broad and 
deep; the tail of good length, carried nearly horizontal; wings, large, long 
and powerful; shanks and feet short and large; head of good size, the top 
covered with crest-like feathers which are elevated under excitement. 
The sides of face should be covered with caruncles — the larger the better. 
The male in both varieties is fully one-third larger than the female. 

East India and Call Ducks — the bantams of the duck family — • 
should be small in size, both male and female — the smaller the better. 
The body should be short, well rounded and carried nearly horizontal. 
The head is small, the bill short and concave, and the neck short and 
slender. 

The Crested Whites have the general characteristics of the Pekins, 
except that they possess crests and are one pound lighter in weight. 



PEKIN DUCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Bill or bean of drake marked with black; feathers other than white or 
creamy white in any part of plumage; twisted wing; crooked back; de- 
cidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Drake 9 lbs. Adult Duck 8 lbs. 

Young Drake 8 lbs. Young Duck 7 lbs. 

296 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 297 

SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Long, finely formed. 

Bill: Of medium size, slightly convex between juncture with head 
and extremity of bill. 

Eyes: Large, deep set. 

Neck: In drake, rather long and large; in duck, of medium length; 
in both, carried well forward, arched. 

Wings: Short, carried closely and smoothly against sides. 

Back: Long, broad, with slightly concave sweep from shoulder to 
tail. 

Tail: Rather erect, the curled feathers of drake being hard and stiff. 

Breast: Broad, deep, prominent. 

Body: Long, broad, carried just clear of ground. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs and shanks, short, large, set well back. 
Toes, straight, connected by web. 

Carriage of Body : Elevated in front, sloping downward toward rear. 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Bill: Orange-yellow, free from black. 
Eyes: Deep leaden-blue. 
Shanks and Toes: Reddish-orange. 
Plumage: Creamy white. 

AYLESBURY DUCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Bill or bean of drake marked with black; feathers other than pure 
white in any part of plumage; twisted wing; crooked back; decidedly wry 
tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Drake 9 lbs. Adult Duck 8 lbs. 

Young Drake 8 lbs. Young Duck 7 lbs. 

SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Large, long, finely formed. 

Bill: Long, broad; outline nearly straight from top of head to tip 
of bill. 

Eyes: Full, deep set. 

Neck: Long, moderately thick, slightly curved. 

Wings: Strong, carried closely and smoothly against sides. 

Back: Long, broad, straight on top. 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




PEKIN DRAKE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 299 




PEKIN DUCK 



300 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Tail: Only slightly elevated; composed of stiff, hard feathers; sex 
feathers of drake, hard, well curled. 

Breast: Deep, prominent. 

Body: Long, deep, broad; keel, straight. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, stout; shanks, stout, strong. Toes, 
straight, connected by web. 

Carriage of Body: Nearly horizontal. 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Bill: Pale flesh-color, free from black or dark marks. 

Eyes: Deep leaden. 

Shanks and Toes: Bright, light orange. 

Plumage : Web, quill and fluff of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



ROUEN DUCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Bills clear yellow, dark green, blue or lead color; any approach to 
white ring on neck of duck; white in primaries or secondaries; twisted 
wing; crooked back, decidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Drake 9 lbs. Adult Duck 8 lbs. 

Young Drake 8 lbs. Young Duck 7 lbs. 

SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head : Full and round. 

Bill: Long, broad, wider at extremity than at base; top slightly 
depressed from crown of head to tip of bill. 

Eyes: Bold, bright. 

Neck: Long, tapering, curved, erect. 

Wings: Short, carried smoothly against sides. 

Back: Long, broad, slightly arched. 

Tail: Only slightly elevated; composed of hard, stiff feathers; sex 
feathers, hard, well curled. 

Breast; Broad, deep. 

Body- Long, deep, broad; keek long, straight. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, large; shanks, short, large. Toes, 
straight, connected by web. 

Carriage of Body: Nearly horizontal. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 301 

COLOR OF DRAKE. 

Head: Rich, lustrous green. 

Bill: Greenish-yellow, without any other shade, except black bean 
at tip. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Neck: Rich, lustrous green, with a distinct white ring on the lower 
part, not quite meeting at back. 

Wings: Flights, slaty- black and brown, free from white; coverts, pale, 
clear gray; small coverts, gray, clearly penciled; pinion coverts, dark gray 
to slaty-black; bars formed by a line of white in center of small coverts 
which should be gray tipped with black, coming to a line at base of flight 
coverts which should be slaty-black above the quill, and a rich, iridescent 
blue below, tipped with white at end of lower side, making two distinct 
white bars (the pinion bar being edged with black), with a distinct blue, 
ribbon -like mark between them. 

Back: Upper part, ashy-gray, mixed with green, becoming a rich 
lustrous green on lower part of rump; shoulders, gray, finely streaked with 
wavy brown lines. 

Tail: Dark, ashy-brown, outer web in old birds edged with white; 
coverts, black, showing very rich, purple reflections; tail well supplied on 
under side with solid, beetle-green feathers. 

Breast: Very rich purplish-brown or claret, extending well down on 
breast and free from any other color. 

Body: Under part, steel-gray; sides, steel-gray, very finely penciled 
across the feathers with glossy black, growing lighter near the vent and 
ending in solid greenish-black, forming a distinct line of separation between 
the two colors. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, ashy-gray; shanks and toes, orange, with 
brownish tinge. 

COLOR OF DUCK. 

Head : Deep brown, with two light tan stripes on each side, running 
from bill to point behind eyes. 

Bill: Brownish-orange, with dark blue blotch on upper part and 
black bean at tip. 

Eyes : Dark brown. 

Neck: Golden brown, penciled with dark lustrous brown, free from 
any appearance of a white ring. 

Wings: Flat of wing, light brown, with distinct pencilings of rich, 
greenish-brown; wing-bar, rich, brilliant purple, each end of bar banded 
with white; secondaries, dark brown, with distinct pencilings that conform 
to shape of feather. 

Back: Rich, golden brown, richly marked with wide pencilings of 



302 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




ROUEN DRAKE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



303 




ROUEN DUCK 



304 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

greenish-black; shoulder coverts, dark brown with distinct pencilings of 
light brown that conform to shape of feather. 

Tail: Golden brown, with distinct, broad, wavy penciling of dark 
greenish- bro wn ; coverts, brown, with broad, distinct and regular pencilings 
of greenish-brown. 

Beeast: Rich, golden brown, with distinct wide pencilings of light 
brown that conform to shape of feather. 

Body: Under part, light brown, each feather distinctly penciled with 
rich, dark brown, to point of tail; sides, dark brown, with distinct pencilings 
of light brown that conform to shape of feather. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, dark brown, distinctly penciled; shanks 
and toes, orange or orange-brown. 

CAYUGA DUCKS. 

D isqualifications. 
White in any part of plumage; twisted wing; crooked back; decidedly 
wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Drake 8 lbs. Adult Duck 7 lbs. 

Young Drake 7 lbs. Young Duck 6 lbs. 

SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Long, finely formed. 

Bill: Long, top line slightly depressed. 

Eyes: Full. 

Neck: Of medium length, slightly arched. 

Wings: Short, folded closely and smoothly against sides. 

Back: Long, broad. 

Tail: Only slightly elevated; composed of hard, stiff feathers; sex 
feathers of drake, hard, well curled. 

Breast: Broad, full, prominent. 

Body: Long, deep, broad. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, large; shanks, of medium length 
and size. Toes, straight, connected by web. 

Carriage of Body: Nearly horizontal. 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 
Bill: Black. 
Eyes: Dark brown. 

Shanks and Toes: Dark slate or black, the latter preferred. 
Plumage: Lustrous greenish-black throughout, except primaries of 
duck, which are sometimes dark brown. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 305 

CALL DUCKS. 

SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Small, slender. 

Bill: Short, trim. 

Eyes: Of medium size, bright. 

Neck: Of medium length. 

Wings: Neat, closely folded. 

Back: Comparatively short. 

Tail: Only slightly elevated; composed of hard, stiff feathers: sex 
feathers of drake, well curled. 

Breast: Round, full. 

Body: Short, compact, small — the smaller the better. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, plump; shanks, short. Toes, 
straight, connected by web. 

Carriage of Body: Nearly horizontal, possessing a startled and 
gamy appearance. 

GRAY CALL DUCKS. 

D isq ualifications. 

Any approach to white ring on neck of duck; white primaries in either 
sex; twisted wing; crooked back; decidedly wry tail. (See general dis- 
qualifications.) 

COLOR OF DRAKE. 

Head: Rich, lustrous green. 

Bill: Greenish-yellow. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Neck: Lustrous green, with a distinct white ring on lower part, not 
quite meeting at back. 

Wings: Grayish-brown, mixed with green, with broad, ribbon-like 
mark of rich purple — showing metallic reflections of green and blue — 
edged with white, the two colors quite distinct; primaries, dark dusky 
brown. 

Back: Ashy-gray, mixed with green on upper part; on lower part and 
rump, rich, lustrous green. 

Tail: Dark ashy-brown; outer web in old birds edged with white: 
tail-coverts, black, showing very rich purple reflections. 

Breast: Rich purplish-brown or claret, extending well down on 
breast and free from any other color. 

Body: Under part and sides, steel-gray, growing lighter near vent 
and ending in solid, beetle-green black, forming distinct line of separation 
between the two colors. 



306 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, ashy-gray; shanks and toes, orange, with a 
brownish tinge. 

COLOR OF DUCK. 

Head : Deep brown, with two light tan stripes on each side, running 
from bill behind eyes. 

Bill.: Brownish-orange. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Neck: Light brown, penciled with dark, lustrous brown, free from 
any appearance of a white ring. 

Wings: Light brown, mixed with green, with broad, ribbon-like bars 
of rich purple across them, edged with white, the two colors distinct; 
primaries, brown. 

Back: Light brown, richly marked with green. 

Tail: Light brown, with distinct, broad, wavy penciling of dark 
greenish-brown ; tail-coverts, brown, with broad, distinct and regular pen- 
ciling of dark brown or greenish-brown. 

Breast: Dark brown, richly penciled with lighter brown. 

Body: Under part and sides, light brown, each feather distinctly pen- 
ciled with rich, dark brown to point of tail. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, dark brown, distinctly penciled; shanks 
and toes, orange, or orange-brown. 



WHITE CALL DUCKS. 

, Disqualifications. 

Bill or bean of drake marked with black; feathers other than white 
or creamy white in any part of plumage; twisted wing; crooked back; de- 
cidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Bill: Bright yellow. 

Eyes: Blue. 

Shanks and Toes: Bright orange. 

Plumage: Web, quill and fluff of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 307 

BLACK EAST INDIA DUCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

White in any part of plumage; twisted wing; crooked back; decidedly 
wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Short, slender. 

Bill: Rather short. 

Eyes: Of medium size. 

Neck: Short, nicely arched. 

Wings: Long, well folded. 

Back: Of medium width, rather long. 

Tail: Slightly elevated, composed of short, stiff feathers; sex feathers 
of drake, well curled. 

Breast: Full, plump. 

Body: Long, comparatively small — the smaller the better. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, plump; shanks, short. Toes, 
straight, connected by web. 

Carriage of Body: Nearly horizontal, possessing a gamy appear- 
ance. 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Bill: Drake, very dark green; duck, black. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Shanks and Toes: Black. 

Plumage: Rich black, with brilliant, greenish tint. 

CRESTED WHITE DUCKS. 

Disqualificat ions. 

Absence of crest; bill of drake marked with black; feathers other than 
white or creamy white in any part of plumage; twisted wing; crooked back; 
decidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Drake 7 lbs. Adult Duck 6 lbs. 

Young Drake 6 lbs. Young Duck 5 lbs. 



308 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Symmetry 5 

Weight 12 

Condition 10 

Head 4, Beak 4, Size 4 12 

Crest 15 

Neck 8 

Wings 3 

Back 12 

Tail 4 

Breast 12 

Body 5 

Legs and Toes 2 

100 
SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head : Of medium size. 

Bill: Of medium size. 

Eyes: Large, bright. 

Crest: Large, well balanced on crown of head. 

Neck: Rather long, slightly arched. 

Wings: Of medium length, smoothly folded. 

Back: Of medium length and width. 

Tail: Only slightly elevated; composed of hard, stiff feathers; sex 
feathers of drake, well curled. 

Breast: Prominent, full. 

Body: Of medium length, plump. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, plump; shanks, short. Toes, 
straight, connected by web. 

Carriage of Body: Nearly horizontal. 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Bill: Yellow. 

Eyes: Blue. 

Shanks and Toes : Light orange. 

Plumage: Web, quill and fluff of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



STAXDARD OF PERFECTION 309 

MUSCOVY DUCKS. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Drake 10 lbs. Adult Duck 7 lbs. 

Young Drake 8 lbs. Young Duck lbs. 

SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Rather long; in drake, large, the top covered with long, crest- 
like feathers, which are elevated or depressed by the bird when it becomes 
excited or alarmed; sides of head and face covered with caruncles — the 
larger the better. 

Bill: Rather short, of medium width. 

Eyes: Of medium size, having slightly over-arched socket. 

Neck: Of medium length, well arched. 

Wings: Very long, stout. 

Back: Long, broad, somewhat flat. 

Tail: Rather long, with abundance of stiff plumage. 

Breast: Broad, full. 

Body: Long, broad. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, very short, large; shanks, short, large. 
Toes, straight, connected by web. 

Carriage of Body: Nearly horizontal. 

COLORED MUSCOVY DUCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Plumage more than one-half white; twisted wing; crooked back; de- 
cidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Glossy black and white. 

Bill: Pink, shaded with horn. 

Eyes: Brown. 

Face: Caruncles, red. 

Neck: Black, or black and white, black predominating. 

Wings: Coverts, rich, lustrous greenish-black. 

Back: Lustrous blue-black, sometimes broken with white feathers. 

Tail: Black. 

Breast and Body: Lustrous blue-black, sometimes broken with 
white; the blacker the plumage the better. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, white or black, white preferred; shanks 
and toes, varying from yellow to dark lead. 



310 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

WHITE MUSCOVY DUCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Smooth heads; feathers other than pure white in any part of plumage; 
twisted wing; crooked back; decidedly wry tail. (See general disquali- 
fications.) 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Bill: Pinkish flesh-color. 

Eyes: Blue. 

Face: Caruncles, red. 

Shanks and Toes: Pale orange or yellow. 

Plumage: Web, quill and fluff of feathers in all sections, pure white. 



INDIAN RUNNER DUCKS. 

D isqualifications. 

Claret breast; blue wing- bars; absence of two or more primaries or 
secondaries; twisted wing; crooked back; decidedly wry tail. (See genera] 
disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 
Drake 4£ lbs. Duck 4 lbs 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Carriage 20 

Weight 5 

Condition 6 

Head — Shape 4, Color 3 7 

Beak — ■ Shape 3, Color 2 5 

Eyes 3 

Neck — Shape 8. Color 4 12 

Wings — Shape 3, Color3 6 

Back — Shape 7, Color 3 10 

Tail — Shape 2, Color 2 4 

Breast — Shape 7, Color 3 10 

Body — Shape 5, Color 3 8 

Legs and Toes — Shape 2, Color 2 : 4 

100 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 311 

SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Long, flat, finely formed. 

Bill: Strong at base, fairly broad and long, extending down from the 
skull in a straight line, giving it the appearance of a long wedge. 

Eyes: Set high in head. 

Neck: Long, thin. 

Wings: Of medium length, carried closely to body. 

Back: Long, narrow. 

Tail: Composed of hard, stiff feathers; sex feathers of drake, hard, 
well curled. 

Breast: Full, but not rounded, showing but little suggestion of keel. 
Carried well up. 

Body: Long, narrow, racy-looking, carried erectly, with no indication 
of keel, resembling the penguin in form. 

Legs and Toes: Legs, of medium length, set well apart. Toes, 
straight, connected by web. 

Carriage of Body: Very erect. 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Fawn and white, the fawn in head of drake darker than in 
other parts of the body. A narrow line of white divides the cap from the 
cheek markings behind the eyes, and a line of white about one-eighth of an 
inch wide divides the base of the bill from the head markings. 

Bill: Drake, yellow, when young; greenish-yellow when fully de- 
veloped. Duck, yellow, spotted with green when young, a dull cucumber- 
green when fully matured, with black bean in both drake and duck. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Neck: White, from head to where breast markings begin, which 
should be about one and one-half to two inches above base of neck. 

Wings: Shoulder, and top part of wings, same as breast. Primaries 
and secondaries, white. The white of the primaries and secondaries 
should extend up the lower edge of the wings to a point a little above the 
white of the lower part of the body, forming an inverted V-shaped marking 
on each side of the body. The fawn on the shoulder, top part of wings, 
when the wings are folded, comes to a point on the lower part of the back, 
forming a heart shape, like a heart pressed flat on the back. 

Back: Even fawn throughout. 

Tail: Drake, bronze-green; duck, light fawn. 

Breast: Fawn and white, divided about half way between point of 
breast-bone and legs; upper half, fawn, lower part, white. 

Body and Fluff: White, except an indistinct line of color which runs 
from base of tail to thigh. 

Shanks and Toes : Orange red. 



312 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




INDIAN RUNNER DRAKE 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



313 




INDIAN RUNNER DUCK 



314 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

BLUE SWEDISH DUCKS. 

Disqualifications. 

Yellow bills; absence of white in breast ; feathers of any other color than 
blue forming more than one-fourth of plumage; twisted wing; crooked 
back; decidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Drake 8 lbs. Adult Duck 7 lbs. 

Young Drake 6j lbs. Young Duck 5§ lbs. 

SHAPE OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Long, finely formed. 

Bill: Of medium size, nearly straight in outline when viewed side- 
wise. 

Eyes: Full, bright. 

Neck: Long, slightly arched. 

Wings: Short, carried closely. 

Back: Long, broad, with slight concave sweep from shoulders to tail. 

Tail: Slightly elevated; curled feathers in tail of drake. 

Breast: Full, deep. 

Body: Broad, of medium length, rangy. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, stout; shanks, stout. Toes, straight, 
connected by web. 

Carriage of Body: Nearly horizontal; somewhat elevated in front. 

COLOR OF DRAKE AND DUCK. 

Head: Drake, dark blue, sometimes approaching black, with a green 
sheen. Duck, same as general body color. 

Bill: Drake, greenish-blue. Duck, smutty brown, with a dark 
brown blotch, similar to Rouen Duck blotch, only larger. 

Eyes: Dark brown. 

Wings: Two main flight feathers, pure white; balance of wing uniform 
with general plumage. 

Breast: Front part, called the bib, covered with pure white feathers, 
forming heart-shaped spot about three by four inches in size, often ex- 
tending upward to lower mandible. 

Shanks and Toes: Reddish-brown to grayish-black, the former 
preferred. 

Plumage: Uniform steel-blue throughout, except as noted above. 



Class XIV. 

GEESE. 
Breeds Varieties 

Toulouse Gray 

Embden White 

African Gray 

^ \ Brown 

CmNESE | White 

Wild or Canadian Gray 

Egyptian Coloied 



315 



GEESE 

The male of the Toulouse, Embden and African varieties — the 
heavy weights of the goose family — should be broad and flat in back, with 
deep, round, full breast and long body, these features giving the bird a 
massive appearance. The head should be large, the neck of good length 
and slightly arched, and the bird well balanced in carriage. The female 
should resemble the male, except that she is somewhat less massive. 

Chinese Geese are an ornamental variety of medium size, with long, 
arched necks, carried very upright, and having a large knob at base of the 
beak. In body, they are short and upright, the general effect being novel 
and striking. 

Wild or Canadian Geese, now domesticated, are seen most frequently 
in public parks. They are of medium size, with long, arched, snake-like 
necks, and have small heads, carried well elevated, which give them a bold 
and defiant appearance. 

In Egyptian Geese the sexes are nearly alike in color, shape and gen- 
eral appearance. They are decidedly odd members of the goose family, 
being very different in most respects from the other Standard varieties of 
geese. Some writers have gone so far as to separate them from the goose 
tribe. Striking characteristics are their small size and pugnacious dis- 
position. 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Symmetry 8 

Weight 20 

Condition 8 

Head 10 

Neck 7 

Wings 7 

Back 10 

Tail 3 

Breast 12 

Body 12 

Legs and Toes S 

100 



316 



STAXDARD OF PERFECTION 317 

TOULOUSE GEESE. 

D isqualificat ion s. 

White feathers in primaries or secondaries; twisted wing; crooked 
back; decidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STAXDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Gander 25 lbs. Adult Goose 20 lbs. 

Young Gander 20 lbs. Young Goose 10 lbs. 

SHAPE OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Rather large, short. 

Bill: Comparatively short, stout at base. 

Eyes: Large, full. 

Neck: Of medium length, carried rather erect; dewlap very desirable 
in aged fowls. 

Wings: Large, strong, smoothly folded against sides. 

Back: Of moderate length, broad, curving slightly from neck to tail. 

Tail: Comparatively short; feathers, hard, stiff. 

Breast: Broad, deep. 

Body: Of good length, broad, very deep, compact, in fat specimens 
almost touching the ground. Keel deep with straight line from breast to 
abdomen; stern, almost square. 

Legs^ and Toes: Thighs and shanks, short, stout. Toes, straight, 
connected by web. 

COLOR OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Gray. 

Bill: Pale orange. 

Eyes: Dark brown or hazel. 

Neck: Dark blue-gray, shading to lighter gray as it approaches the 
back. 

Wings: Primaries, dark gray or brown; secondaries, darker than pri- 
maries, with very narrow edging of lighter gray; coverts and flat of wing, 
dark gray, with very narrow edging of lighter gray. 

Back: Dark gray. 

Tail: Gray and white, the ends tipped with white. 

Breast: Light gray, edged with white. 

Body: Underneath, light grav, growing lighter until it becomes almost 
white upon abdomen, the white extending back to and around tail; sides, 
light gray, becoming dark blue-gray over thighs, edged with lighter gray; 



318 



AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




TOULOUSE GANDER 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



319 




TOULOUSE GOOSE 



320 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

white covering all lower posterior parts; from front view very little white 
visible. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, light gray; shanks and toes, deep reddish- 
orange. 

EMBDEN GEESE. 

D inq ualifications. 

Feathers other than pure white in any part of plumage; twisted wing; 
crooked back; decidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Gander 20 lbs. Adult Goose 18 lbs. 

Young Gander 18 lbs. Young Goose 16 lbs. 

SHAPE OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Rather large. 

Bill: Of medium length and size, stout at base. 

Eyes: Large. 

Neck: Rather long, carried quite upright. 

Wings: Large, well rounded, strong, smoothly folded against sides. 

Back: Long and straight. 

Tail: Comparatively short; feathers, hard, stiff. 

Breast: Round, deep, full, without keel. 

Body: Large, square, very deep, in fat specimens almost touching 
the ground; abdomen, full and deep. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, large; shanks, short, stout. Toes, 
straight, connected by web. 

COLOR OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Bill: Orange. 

Eyes: Bright blue. 

Shanks and Toes : Deep orange. 

Plumage: Pure white. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 321 

AFRICAN GEESE. 

Disqualifications. 

Beak and knob other than black; absence of knob or dewlap; white 
feathers in primaries and secondaries; twisted wing; crooked back; de- 
cidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS 

Adult Gander 20 lbs. Adult Goose 18 lbs. 

Young Gander 16 lbs. Young Goose. .......... 14 lbs. 

SHAPE OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Large, with large knob; heavy dewlap under tliroat, which in 
young birds is but slightly developed. 

Knob: Large. 

Bill: Rather large, stout at base. 

Eyes: Large. 

Neck: Long, curved; throat embellished with dewlap. 

Wings: Large, strong, smoothly folded against sides. 

Back: Broad, flat. 

Tail: Composed of stiff, hard feathers. 

Breast: Round, moderately full. 

Body: Large, long, carried rather upright. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, short, stout; shanks, of medium length. 
Toes, straight, connected by web. 

COLOR OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Black or very dark. gray. 
Knob: Black. 
Bill: Black. 
Eyes: Dark brown. 

Neck: Light gray, with a dark gray stripe down back of neck from 
head to body. 

Wings : Dark gray. 

Back: Dark gray. 

Tail: Dark gray. 

Breast: Gray. 

Body: Light gray on under parts. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, light gray; shanks and toes, dark orange. 



322 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

CHINESE GEESE. 

Disqualifications. 

Absence of knob; white feathers in primaries or secondaries; twisted 
wing; crooked back; decidedly wry tail. (See general disqualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Gander. 12 lbs. Adult Goose. , 10 lbs. 

Young Gander 10 lbs. Young Goose 8 lbs. 

SHAPE OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Of medium size, with large knob at base of bill. 
Knob:, Large, the larger the better. 
Bill: Of medium length, stout at base. 
Eyes: Large, bright. 

Neck: Long, gracefully arched, carried very upright. 
Wings: Large, strong, smoothly folded against sides. 
Back: Of medium length and width, slightly arched from neck to tail. 
Tail: Composed of hard, stiff feathers. 
Breast: Round, full. 
Body: Rather short, round, plump. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, shorty stout; shanks, of medium length. 
Toes, straight, connected by web. 

BROWN CHINESE. 

COLOR OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Brown. 

Knob: Dark brown or black. 

Bill: Black. 

Eyes: Hazel or brown. 

Neck: Light brown or grayish-brown, with a dull, yellowish-brown 
stripe down back of neck from head to body. 

Wings: Grayish-brown. 

Back: Dark brown. 

Tail* Grayish-brown. 

Breast* Grayish-brown. 

Body: Grayish- brown, lighter in shade on under parts. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, grayish-brown; shanks and toes, dusky 
orange. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 323 

WHITE CHINESE GEESE. 

Disqualifications. 

Absence of knob; feathers other than pure white in any part of plum- 
age; twisted wing; crooked back; decidedly wry tail. (See general dis- 
qualifications.) 

COLOR OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Knob: Orange. 

Bill: Orange. 

Eyes: Light blue. 

Shanks and Toes: Orange-yellow. 

Plumage: Pure white. 

WILD OR CANADIAN GEESE. 

Disqualifications. 
Twisted wing; the clipping of one wing to prevent flying is not to 
handicap specimen; crooked back; decidedly wry tail. (See general dis- 
qualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Gander 12 lbs. Adult Goose 10 lbs. 

Young Gander 10 lbs. Young Goose 8 lbs. 

SHAPE OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Rather small. 
Bill: Small, tapering toward point. 
Eyes: Prominent, sharp, bold. 
Neck: Long, slender, snaky in appearance, 
Wings: Long, large, powerful. 

Back: Long, rather narrow, arched from neck to tail. 
Tail: Composed of hard, stiff feathers. 
Breast: Full, deep. 
Body: Rather long, somewhat slender. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, rather short; shanks, rather long. Toes, 
straight, of medium length, connected by web. 

COLOR OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Black, with a white stripe nearly covering side of face. 

Bill: Black. 

Eyes: Black. 

Neck: Black, shading to light gray at base. 



324 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 




WHITE CHINESE GANDER 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 



325 




WHITE CHINESE GOOSE 



326 AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION 

Wings: Dark gray; primaries, dusky black, showing only dark gray 
when wing is folded; secondaries, brown, lighter than primaries. 
Back: Dark gray. 
Tail: Glossy black. 

Breast: Light gray, growing darker as it approaches legs. 
Body: Under part of body, from legs to tail, white. 
Legs and Toes: Thighs, gray; shanks and toes, black. 



EGYPTIAN GEESE. 

D ^qualifications. 

Twisted wing; the clipping of one wing to prevent flying is not to 
handicap specimen; crooked back; decidedly wry tail. (See general dis- 
qualifications.) 

STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

Adult Gander 10 lbs. Adult Goose 8 lbs. 

Young Gander 8 lbs. Young Goose 6 lbs. 

SHAPE OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Small, rather long. 

Bill: Of medium length and size. 

Eyes: Prominent, bold. 

Neck: Of medium length, rather small. 

Wings: Large; on wing-joints, in lieu of the ordinary hard knobs, 
there are strong, white, horny spurs, about five-eighths of an inch long. 

Back: Rather narrow, slightly arched from neck to tail. 

Tail: Composed of hard, stiff feathers. 

Breast: Round, not deep. 

Body: Rather long, somewhat small and slender. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, of medium length, stout; shanks, rather 
long. Toes, straight, long, connected by web. 

COLOR OF GANDER AND GOOSE. 

Head: Black and gray, with chestnut patch around eyes. 
Bill: Purple or bluish-red. 
Eyes: Orange. 
Neck: Gray and black. 

Wings: Shoulders, white with narrow, black stripe or bar of rich 
metallic luster; primaries and secondaries, glossy black. 
Back: Gray and black. 



STANDARD OF PERFECTION 327 

Tail: Glossy black. 

Breast: Center, chestnut; remainder, gray. 

Body: Gray and black on upper parts; under parts, pale buff or 
yellow, distinctly and regularly penciled with black lines. 

Legs and Toes: Thighs, pale buff; shanks and toes, reddish-yellow. 



CONSTITUTION. 

ARTICLE XI. 

New Breeds and Varieties. 

Section 1. Before a new breed or variety can be admitted to The 
American Standard of Perfection it must comply with the following 
requirements, to wit: 

(a) It must be able to produce fifty per cent of the specimens reason- 
ably true to the type and characteristics of the breed or variety, as set forth 
in the proposed Standard, and must have been exhibited in at least two 
generations, both male and female, at "one show conducted under Ameri- 
can Poultry Association rules in each of three successive annual show sea- 
sons. A written statement by one or more poultry judges who are mem- 
bers of The American Poultry Association, and who officiated at these 
shows, setting forth the qualification for admission to the Standard, shall 
be furnished by said judge to the Secretary-Treasurer of The American 
Poultry Association, who shall forward a copy of the same to the exhibitor 
of the birds concerned." 

(6) If application is made for admission of a new breed, the breed 
must possess such new breed characteristics as to give it a very distinct 
character of its own, and if application is made for the admission of a 
new variety, the variety must truly possess all the type characteristics of 
the breed of which it is a variety. Extraordinary care shall be exercised 
to prevent multiplicity of varieties. 

Section 2. A petition addressed to The American Poultry Asso- 
ciation shall be presented. 

(a) This petition shall contain a description of the breed or variety 
seeking admission, together with all ascertainable facts regarding its origin 
and breeding, and a prayer for its admission. 

(b) Affidavits of not less than five breeders of the breed or variety 
shall be presented, containing statements of the percentage of specimens 
breeding reasonably true to type and characteristics of the breed or variety 
as above required. 

(c) The proposed standard for the breed or variety shall be presented 
at the same time with the petition, but may be amended by the petitioner 
or the association before the admission of the breed or variety. This 
standard shall be read at the meeting at which admission of the breed or 
variety is sought. 

((/) At least ninety (00) days prior to the meeting of the Association 

328 



CONSTITUTION 329 

at which admission to the Standard of Perfection is sought the papers re- 
quired in the application shall be filed with the Secretary-Treasurer, who 
shall give to all members of the Association sixty (60) days' notice of the 
pendency of such application. 

Section 3. If upon consideration of all the evidence, the Asso- 
ciation is satisfied that the breed or variety is worthy of recognition in 
the Standard of Perfection; that it has, in fact, the qualities and character- 
istics set forth in the application; that all claims and characteristics set 
forth in the application are justified, and that all requirements for its 
admission have been complied with, a majority vote of the members present 
and voting by written ballot shall admit the breed or variety to the Stand- 
ard of Perfection. 

BY-LAWS. 

ARTICLE IV. 

American Poultry Association's Poultry Show Rules. 

The following rules and regulations shall be printed on the back of 
each entry blank used by Branch and Associate Members of The American 
Poultry Association, or other clubs or societies whose exhibitions are to 
be held, and advertised to be held, under the poultry show rules of The 
American Poultry Association, and must be signed in ink by each exhib- 
itor whose entries are accepted: 

Section 1. Any person under disqualification by The American 
Poultry Association for fraudulent practices is ineligible to compete or 
judge at this show. Fraudulent practices shall be understood to include, 
among other dishonorable acts, the lending, borrowing or hiring of birds 
for exhibition in competition; also "faking" of any kind, as defined in 
the Glossary of Technical Terms in The American Standard of 
Perfection. 

Section 2. Every bird entered for competition must be the bona 
fide property of the exhibitor; otherwise all entries of the exhibitor shall 
be cancelled, he shall forfeit all entry fees, shall receive no prize money or 
other premium, and if ordered to do so, must remove his exhibit from 
the show room within forty-eight hours. In case of disqualification under 
this rule other exhibits may, at the discretion of the management, be 
moved up in the list of winners, subject to the disqualified exhibitor's 
right of appeal. 

Section 3. Any exhibitor at this show, if called upon to do so by the 
management, shall make affidavit that he is the bona fide owner of every 
bird entered by him for competition. 

Section 4 The judge or judges officiating at this show shall dis- 
qualify any exhibit found to contain a specimen entered for competition 
that is not the bona fide property of the exhibitor, or that has been faked. 

Section 5. This Association reserves the right to return entries, thus 



330 BY-LAWS 

enabling the Secretary to exclude the exhibits of any disqualified person 
endeavoring to show under his own or another's name. In the event of it 
coming to the knowledge of the management that any disqualified person 
is exhibiting, his birds shall be debarred from competition, his entries can- 
celled, entry fees forfeited, and prize money and other premiums withheld. 

Section 6. Exhibitors must not interfere with, nor attempt in any 
manner to influence the judge or judges officiating at this show, on pen- 
alty of having their winnings protested by other exhibitors in the class. 

Section 7. The judges shall be required personally to place, or 
superintend the placing of all prize ribbons or prize cards on the coops of 
the winning specimens. 

Section 8. No bird shall be removed from the show until the close 
of the same without the written consent of the Secretary. 

Section 9. Any exhibitor who shall be disqualified at this show for 
fraudulent practices shall have the right of appeal to the Executive Board 
of The American Poultry Association, also to the next annual meeting 
of the Association; but meanwhile shall be temporarily disqualified from 
exhibiting at any show held under American Poultry Association rules, 
and it is understood that every exhibitor who signs this entry blank thereby 
agrees that his entries may be cancelled, and all entry fees, prize moneys 
and other premiums withheld by the management of this show, in the event 
of his being disqualified; provided that, if his appeal is sustained, all entry 
fees, prize moneys and other premiums shall be delivered to him; provided 
further, that his appeal must be made within one year of the date of the 
disqualification. 

Section 10. Notice of disqualification with a detailed statement of 
facts, with such corroborative evidence as is procurable, shall be mailed 
within five days after the close of the show by the Secretary or some other 
officer of this Association to the Secretary-Treasurer of The American 
Poultry Association, and a complete copy of the notice of disqualification, 
and other papers or charges accompanying said notice shall be mailed at 
the same time to the exhibitor or judge disqualified. 

Section 11. In case of alleged fraudulent practice on the part of any 
judge, exhibitor or other person, or of collusion, the aggrieved exhibitor 
shall have the right to protest in writing, on depositing the sum of five 
dollars with the secretary of the show, and said protest shall be passed 
upon forthwith by the management of the show, subject to an appeal by 
either party to the Executive Board of The American Poultry Association, 
and to the next annual meeting of the Association. In case the protest 
is sustained, the fee shall be refunded. 

Section 12. Any person may protest in writing for palpable dis- 
honesty or fraudulent practice of the judge in placing awards. Such pro- 
test must be handed to the secretary of the show, and a copy delivered or 
mailed to the judge and to the Chairman of the Executive Board of The 



BY-LAWS 331 

American Poultry Association, before the close of the show, provided, 
that an appeal may be taken to the Executive Board, also to the Associa- 
tion as a whole. 

Section 13. No judge of poultry at this show shall exhibit in any 
class he is assigned to pass upon; should he do so, he shall be disqualified 
forthwith by the management on protest of any exhibitor or member of 
The American Poultry Association, and another judge shall be assigned to 
the class. 

Section 14. No exhibitor at this show shall receive a prize on any 
bird that has been owned by or in the possession of the judge assigned to 
the class within six months prior to the close of the entries. 

Section 15. The printed regulations or rules of this show, where 
they are not less stringent than, or where they do not conflict with, the fore- 
going, shall be binding on the exhibitors and judges and supplemental to 
The American Poultry Association rules. 

Section 16. Any exhibitor at this show who is not a member of The 
American Poultry Association, shall submit, and hereby agrees to submit, 
to the jurisdiction of The American Poultry Association, and shall be dealt 
with as though he were a member of the Association. Each exhibitor at 
this show shall sign the appended declaration, to-wit: 

"To Whom it May Concern: Be it known that for the purposes 
of this show I agree to be bound by the poultry show rules of The American 
Poultry Association, as above set forth. 



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